ARCHER FAMILY

1.    John1 Archer, born say 1647, was one of the first Africans freed in Northampton County, Virginia. He was in the List of Tithables: "John Archer negro" in Mrs. Grace Robins' household with her white servants in 1665, 1666, 1671, 1675, and 1677 [Orders 1664-74, fol.14, 29, fol. 114; 1674-79, 74, 190]. Perhaps he was the "Jno" who was listed among the slaves of Major John Robins in the 1664 List of Tithables [Orders 1657-64, 198]. On 28 February 1697 he bound his son Thomas Archer as an apprentice in Northampton County court:

Thomas Archer the son of John Archer voluntarily and of his own free will and with his said Fathers consent was bound by this court to Major John Robins till twenty one years of age he being eleven years of age the 20 day of this Instant month of February ...[Orders 1689-98, 461].

On 30 May 1699 William Ronan sued him in court for a ten-foot horse-mill wheel he had failed to deliver [Orders 1698-1710, 9]. John's son was

2     i. Thomas1, born 20 February 1686/7.

 

2.    Thomas1 Archer, born 20 February 1686/7, was taxable in the Great Bridge District of Norfolk County, Virginia, more than forty years later in 1730:

1730 Thomas Archey -1

1731 Thomas Archey & his son

1732 Thomas Archer & John, his son & Wm. Weaver -3

1733 Thomas Archer & John, his son & Wm. Weaver -3

1734 Duglis Grimes & Ann Archey, a mulato -2

Thos: Archer & his wife & John Archer -3

1735 Thos. Archer, Son Jno., wife Mary & Daughter Ann

[Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables 1730-50, 2, 29, 55, 78, 127, 159, 168, 172].

Thomas and his family moved to Bertie County, North Carolina, where he signed as witness to a February 1741 deed to William Weaver, a tithable in his 1735 Norfolk household [DB F:319]. On 1 May 1744 he was called Thomas Archer, labourer, when he bought 200 acres near Chinkapin Neck for "the sum of one whole years work already paid" [DB F:526], and on 6 July 1750 he paid 100 pounds for a further 340 acres adjoining Thomas Johnson [DB G:395]. This land was located in the southeast corner of present-day Hertford County near the Bertie County line. He was taxable as a "free Mulatto" with his wife Mary and children in the 1751 Bertie Tax List [CCR 190] and the lists from 1753 until 1759 when Hertford County was formed from Bertie [CR 10.702.1]. In 1758 he was taxable in the list of John Brickell with his wife Mary, but in 1759 he was taxable in the list of Henry Hill with his wife Nancy. Perhaps she was related to Thomas Harrell who was listed in his household that year. We lose track of most of the family at this point because the early records for Hertford County were burned in a court house fire. However, Hertford County probate returns filed with the State Government have survived, and there we find a return for Thomas Archer in October 1761 [SS 883, Returns of Probates of Wills, by NCGSJ XIV:102]. The administratrix of his estate was Elizabeth Archer who was probably the wife of one of his three sons who were all married to an Elizabeth: Thomas2, William, and Baker Archer. We can identify his children from the Norfolk and Bertie County tax lists:

3     i. ?Mary, born say 1712.

4     ii. John2, born before 1715.

iii. Ann, born before 1719 since she was taxable in Norfolk County in 1734. She was probably the Ann Archer who was taxable in the 1751 Bertie County household of Abel Manly, called his wife Ann in the 1757 tax list of William Wynns.

iv. Thomas2 Jr., born say 1730, head of his own household of two tithes in 1754. He was taxable with his wife Eliza. in the 1759 list of John Brickell in the constable's list of Edward Williams. He was taxable in Hertford County on four persons in 1768, on five persons in 1770 [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 58], and on 200 acres, 5 cattle, and 2 horses in District 5 of Hertford County in 1779 [GA 30.1]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:26] and 8 in 1800.

v. William, born say 1732, taxable in the 1757 list of John Brickell on himself, his wife Eliza, and James Weaver. He was head of a Hertford County household of 5 "other free" and a white woman in 1790 [NC:26] and 6 "other free" in 1800.

5    vi. Baker, born say 1734.

vii. Abel, born say 1735, taxable in 1751 in his father's Bertie County household [CCR 190]. He was taxable on a married poll in District 3 of Hertford County in 1779 [GA 30.1].

viii. ?Armstrong, born say 1736, listed in his own Bertie County household in the 1756 constable's list of Edward Williams and an insolvent taxpayer in 1757. He mustered with Captain Benjamin Lane's Edgecombe County Militia in the 1750's [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 674]. He was taxable in Norfolk County from 1782 to 1788 and from 1807 to 1811: taxable on his son Thomas in 1786 [PPTL, 1782-91, frames 392, 412, 447, 546, 587, 601, 621, 637, 675; 1791-1812, frames 641, 683, 737]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 4 "other free" in 1790 [NC:25], 3 "other free" and a white woman in 1800, 6 "other free" in 1810 [NC:105], and 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:186].

ix. Hancock, born say 1738, taxable in his father's household in the 1757 list of John Brickell. His father made a deed of gift to him of 340 acres in Bertie County on 29 March 1755 [DB H:157].

6     x. Jacob2, born say 1745.

 

3.    Mary Archer, born say 1712, was taxable in Norfolk County in 1735 in the district above Great Bridge (the same district as Thomas Archer) in John Pinkerton's household, perhaps the same Mary Archer who was counted in James Wilson, Jr.'s household that same year [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables 1730-50, 167, 168]. She may have been identical to Mary Archer who was taxable on two persons in Hertford County in 1770 [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 67], and she may have been the mother of

7     i. Jacob1, born say 1732.

 

4.    John2 Archer was born before 1715 since he was taxable in 1730 in Norfolk County, Virginia. On 6 March 1741/2 he paid 40 pounds for 200 acres in Bertie County near "Hot House" on Edward Carter's line [DB F:352]. In 1751 he and his wife Frances were "free Mulatto" taxables in Bertie County [CCR 190], and in 1757 he was in the Bertie County List of John Brickell with his wife and two children, Ann and Jeremiah [CR 10.702.1, box 1]. He was still listed in the Bertie Tax Lists after 1759 when Hertford County was separated from Bertie, so his land was probably on the Bertie side of the Hertford County line. He and his wife Frances and their son Jeremiah were taxables in the 1775 list of Thomas Ward [CR 10.702.1]. He purchased 100 acres in Bertie County near Luson Swamp on 2 October 1777 [DB M:381] and was taxable on this land and 7 cattle in 1779 in Wynn's and King's district. The February 1787 Bertie court exempted him from paying poll tax, probably because of his old age [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, V:635]. His children were

i. Ann, born circa 1744 since she was taxable in her father's household in the 1757 list of John Brickell.

ii. Jeremiah, born circa 1745 since he was taxable in his father's household in 1757.

iii. ?Ezekiel, born say 1747, not taxed in Bertie County, taxable in Hertford County in District 5 on 3 cattle and 2 horses in 1779 [GA 30.1]. He received voucher no. 2005 for 12 pounds specie in Edenton District on 16 August 1783 for military service in the Revolution [North Carolina Revolutionary Pay Vouchers, 1779-1782, https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q2WT-L51X, Archers, Ezekiel]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 7 "other free" and 3 slaves in 1800.

iv. Zachariah, born say 1750, taxed in Jonathan Stanley's 1766 Bertie Tax List. In 1772 he was head of a household with Sarah Archer, possibly his wife, in the list of Thomas Ward adjacent to John Archer. Zachariah was one of the freeholders ordered to work on a road over Loosing Swamp, and he was a juror in the 22 September 1772 term of the Bertie County court [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, IV:15, 30]. By 1779 he was in Martin County with a tax assessed on 456 pounds in the Tax List filed with the State Government [GA 30.1]. He was granted 150 acres on the Cypress Swamp in Martin County on 1 March 1780 [Grant Book 36:40; N.C. Archives, SS call no. S.108.824, location 1-5]. He received 9 pounds in Halifax District in June 1783 for service in the Revolution ["North Carolina Revolutionary Pay Vouchers, 1779-1782," (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q2WT-LT39 :accessed 17 October 2016), Zachariah Archer]. In the 1787 State Census for Martin County he had 8 persons in his District 7 household. He was head of a Martin County household of 6 "other free" and a white woman in 1790 [NC:68], 1 "other free" and a white woman in 1800 [NC:383], and 2 "other free" in Edgecombe County in 1810 [NC:771]. He purchased 128 acres in Edgecombe County for $150 on 11 January 1802 [DB 11:424]. By his 14 December 1817 Edgecombe County will, proved February 1818, he left a third of his land and his "mansion" to his wife Joanna, left the remainder of his land to Zachariah Dew and mentioned his brothers John and Jeremiah [WB E:179-180].

8     v. John3, born say 1753.

vi. ?Caleb, born after 1747 since he was not taxed in Bertie County in 1759. He was head of a Hertford County household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:26] and 9 in 1800 in Captain Lewis' District. He was allowed 26 pounds pay for service in the Revolution from 10 November 1777 to 10 August 1778 [Haun, Revolutionary Army Accounts, vol.II, Book 2, 280]. On 7 June 1792 he appointed James Carraway of Cumberland County his attorney to receive his payment for services in the Continental line in 1778 and 1779 [NCGSJ VIII:98].

 

5.    Baker Archer, born say 1734, was taxable in the Bertie County household of his father Thomas Archer in 1751 [CCR 190]. He was married to Elizabeth by 1757 when he was taxed with her in John Brickell's list. He was taxable in Hertford on 3 persons in 1770 [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book,11] and taxable on a horse and 3 cattle in District 3 of Hertford County in 1779 [GA 30.1]. He may have been the father of

i. Demcey, born say 1762, a private who enlisted in Ely's Company of the 7th North Carolina Regiment in the Revolution for three years in November 1777 and died on 14 February 1778 [Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, XVI:1005]. His heir Baker Archer received 640 acres of bounty land for his service [N.C. Archives, S.S. file no. 984a, call no. S.108.385 http://mars.archives.ncdcr.gov; also abstracted by Haun, North Carolina Revolutionary Army accounts, pt. 15]. Demcey's heir Jacob Archer assigned his right to military warrant no. 2899 to James Gloster Brehon in 1788 [N.C. Archives, S.S. file no. 017, http://mars.archives.ncdcr.gov].

ii. Jesse, born say 1764, a private who served and died in the Revolution [NSDAR, Roster of Soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution, 184]. His heir Baker Archer received military warrant no. 126 for 640 acres for his service [N.C. Archives, S.S. file no. 225, Archer, Baker http://mars.archives.ncdcr.gov; also abstracted by Haun, North Carolina Revolutionary Army accounts, pt. 15].

 

6.    Jacob2 Archer, born say 1745, was taxable in 1758 in his father's household in the Bertie County list of John Brickell, taxable on two tithes in Hertford County in 1770 [Fouts, Tax Receipt Book, 42] and taxable on 125 acres in District 2 of Hertford County in 1779 [GA 30.1, p.19]. He received voucher nos. 1960 and 2309 for a total of 21 pounds specie on 1 August 1783 and 26 August 1783 in Edenton District for military service in the Revolution [North Carolina Revolutionary Pay Vouchers, 1779-1782, https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q2WT-5Q3K, Archers, Jacob]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 8 "other free" in 1790 [NC:26] and 7 in Captain Langston's district in 1800. He later moved to Sumner County, Tennessee, where his undated will was recorded about 1807. He left land in Hertford County, North Carolina, to his son Jacob and $40 each to his oldest son Josiah and second son Hezekiah. The will also mentioned his wife Sarah and other unnamed children. Simon Shoecraft was a witness to the will [WB 1:121]. His three children named in his will were

i. Josiah, head of a Hertford County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 and 3 "free colored" in Wilson County, Tennessee, in 1820.

ii. Hezekiah, born before 1776, head of a Hertford County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 and 9 "free colored" in Wilson County, Tennessee, in 1830 (Hezekiah Archy).

iii. Jacob3, born after 1775, He received warrant no. 21334 in Wilson County, Tennessee, on 27 September 1814 for 20 acres lying in the first district between Barton's Creek and Spring Creek, on the west boundary of a tract of land sold by Martin Tally to Jacob [North Carolina and Tennessee, Early Land Records, 1753-1931, Roll 48:Book Y:599; ancestry.com]. Jacob was head of a Wilson County, Tennessee household of 14 "free colored" in 1830 (Jacob Archy).

 

7.    Jacob1 Archer, born say 1730, was taxable in his own household in the Western Branch District of Norfolk County from 1750 to 1778 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables, 1730-50, 202; 1751-65, 43, 61, 86, 105, 136, 168] and taxable on 5 cattle in Norfolk County in 1782 [PPTL, 1782-91, frame 394]. His children may have been

i. John, born say 1750, taxable in John Lelloe's Norfolk County household in 1766 and in the household of (his father?) Jacob Archer in 1771. His Norfolk County tax was charged to Lucy Shoecraft in 1770 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables 1766-80, 46, 132, 151, 263].

9     ii. Evans, born about 1754.

10     iii. Thomas3, born say 1758.

iv. Oliff, head of a Norfolk County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:794].

 

8.   John3 Archer, born say 1753, was a "free Mulatto" taxable in the household of John Sholer, Jr., in an untitled Bertie tax list for 1765. In 1766 he was taxable in William Whealer's household, and in 1767 he was in Henry Bunch's household in Jonathan Standley's list [CR 10.702.1]. By 1779 he was in Martin County where he was taxable as a married man [GA 30.1]. He received 9 pounds in Halifax District for service in the Revolution ["North Carolina Revolutionary Pay Vouchers, 1779-1782," (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q2WT-LLZ9 :accessed 17 October 2016), John Archer]. He may have been the John Archer who sold 50 acres in Halifax, North Carolina, joining Reedy Branch on 16 December 1783 [DB 15:206]. He was head of a Halifax County household of 9 "other free" in 1790 [NC:63], and 5 "other free" and a white woman in 1810 [NC:3]. He was probably deceased by 4 December 1817 when his children (unnamed) were mentioned in the will of his brother Zachariah. Prudence Archy, eighty-eight years old in 1850, a "Mulatto" born in North Carolina and living with Polly Murray in the Wilson County, Tennessee census, may have been his widow or sister. The Murray family lived in both Martin and Halifax counties about 1790. His children were

i. ?Polly, charged Jesse Brooks in Halifax County court on 20 February 1800 with begetting her bastard child [Minutes 1799-1802, 96].

ii. ?Reddick, head of Halifax County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:286] and 6 in Edgecombe County in 1810 [NC:726].

iii. ?Jonathan, head of an Edgecombe County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:768].

iv. Norfleet, born about 1785, the sixteen-year-old son of John Archer ordered bound to Elijah Wilkins to be an apprentice blacksmith by the Halifax County court on 16 February 1801. He was head of a Halifax County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:4] and 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:138].

v. ?Penny, head of a Halifax County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:4] and 6 "free colored" in Hertford County in 1820 [NC:186].

vi. ?David, head of a Halifax County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:138].

 

9.    Evans Archer, born about 1755, was a soldier born in Hertford County and living in Norfolk County on 23 September 1780 when he enlisted in the Revolution for 1-1/2 years: age 25, yellow complexion, 5'4-1/4" high, marched to join Colonel Green [Register & description of Noncommissioned officers & Privates, LVA accession no. 24296, by http://revwarapps.org/b69.pdf (p.70)]. He was taxable in Norfolk County, Virginia, in 1786 and 1787 [PPTL, 1782-91, frames 525, 558]. He was head of a Hertford County household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:25], 3 in 1800, and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:186]. He was sixty-nine years old on 27 September 1823 when he applied for a Revolutionary War pension in Hertford County court, stating that he enlisted in Portsmouth, Virginia, for eighteen months until January 1782. He lived with his daughter Margaret, a single woman with a four-year-old child. Martin Bizzell testified for him [NARA, S.41415, M805-25, frames 0113-8]. In 1835 he was listed as a Revolutionary War pensioner in a report to Congress [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, XXII:571]. One of his children was

i. Margaret, counted in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes" in St. Brides Parish, Norfolk County, in 1814, a "free Negro" taxable on a free male tithable in 1816 [PPTL, 1813-24, frames 67, 167].

 

10.    Thomas3 Archer, born say 1758, purchased 25 acres at the head of the Western Branch of the Elizabeth River in Norfolk County for 50 pounds on 10 May 1780 [DB 30:64]. He was taxable in Norfolk County in 1776 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables 1766-80, 203], head of a household of 7 persons in 1785 [VA:93], taxable on a horse in Portsmouth and Elizabeth River Parishes from 1783 to 1817: taxable on 2 free males in 1791, 1792, and 1794, a planter on Western Branch in 1801 when he was counted in a list of "free Negroes and Mulattoes," called a "M"(ulatto) in 1802 and 1803, charged with Thomas Archer, Jr.'s tithe in 1805, a "B.M" (Black Man) taxable on a horse and 6 cattle in Portsmouth from 1815 to 1817 [PPTL, 1782-1791, frames 430, 466, 525, 637; 1791-1812, frames 17, 77, 383, 426, 554, 641, 720; 1813-24, frames 94, 121, 271]. He was head of a Norfolk County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:819]. Perhaps his wife was Eunice Archer, born about 1756, who registered in Norfolk County on 20 August 1810: 4 feet 11 Inc., 54 Years, of age Yellow Complexion [A Register of Free Negros & Mulattos in the County of Norfolk, #32]. On 12 December 1810 he purchased 7 acres in Norfolk County on the southside of Richard David's Mill Run adjoining his own land from Thomas Newton for $105 [DB 45:113-4]. He sold 4 acres at the head of Western Branch to Jesse Weaver on 5 March 1817, and on 20 October 1812 he made a Norfolk County deed of gift of all his personal estate to his daughter Elizabeth Weaver [DB 47:163; 48:85]. His children were

i. Elizabeth, married Weaver.

ii. ?Sally Weaver, sold for $200 her inheritance from (her father?) Thomas Archer, consisting of a tract of land at the head of the Western Branch adjoining Adam Perkins, by deed proved in Norfolk County in 1819 [DB 48:107-8].

 

Other members of the Archer family were

i. Sophia, born about 1775, registered in Norfolk County on 19 July 1798: a Mulatto Girl about twenty three years of age was free born [Archer, Sophia (F, 23): Free Negro Certificate, 1798, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA].

ii. Peggy, head of a Hertford County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 and 3 in 1800 [NC:164].

iii. William2, head of a Hertford County household of 4 "other free" in 1800 [NC:703] and 3 "other free" in 1810 [NC:105].

iv. Rollin/ Relph/ Ralf, born before 1776, head of a Hertford County household of 4 "other free" in 1800, 6 in 1810 [NC:105], and 3 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:186].

v. Simon, born before 1776, head of a Hertford County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [NC:105] and 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:182].

11   vi. Thomas4, born before 1776.

 

11.    Thomas4 Archer, born before 1776, was head of an Orange County, North Carolina household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:352]. He was identified as a Revolutionary War soldier and father of Nancy, wife of Elias Roberts, in Elias' Chatham County free papers. The papers stated that Thomas Archie had resided in Chatham County for twenty-three years but was living in Orange County, North Carolina, when the papers were issued on 10 February 1823 [Orange County, Indiana DB D:432]. He was the father of

i. ?Jesse1, married Pattie Heathcock (Haithcock), 24 October 1807 Orange County bond, Holiday Heathcock bondsman. He was head of an Orange County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [Book A, 420]. He left a 9 April 1855 Orange County will, proved August 1855, by which he left 162 acres to his wife and after her death to his son Stephen and wife's granddaughter Patsy Hathcock. He also named his daughter Candacy Hathcock and grandchildren Jesse Archer, Minday N. Archer, Thomas Archer and Stephen Archer [WB G:110-111].

ii. ?Moses, married Polley Roberts, 23 April 1813 Orange County bond, Mathias Milton & Moses Bass bondsmen. Moses Archie was head of a Chatham County household of 4 "other free" in 1820 [NC:192] and was living in Lost Creek Township, Vigo County, Indiana, in 1850 with wife Polly and nine-year-old Margaret Archer.

iii. ?Sally, married Benjamin Roberts, 30 June 1817 Orange County bond, Jesse Archer bondsman.

iv. Nancy, wife of Elias Roberts.

 

Southampton County

1.    Luke Archer, born say 1750, was a "Negro" taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, on 2 slaves above 16, 2 slaves 12-16 and 2 horses in 1788, taxable on a slave and 3 horses in 1789, a slave and a horse in 1790, 2 free male tithables in 1792, taxable on 2 slaves over the age of 16 in 1793, taxable (called Luke Artis) on a horse in 1794, taxable on a slave aged 12-16 in 1797, 2 slaves over 16 in 1798, and taxable on his own tithe and a horse from 1799 to 1804 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 654, 704, 754, 811, 868; 1792-1806, frames 45, 72, 258, 308, 369, 404, 505, 542, 612, 681, 796, 833]. He married Honour Artis, daughter of Lewis Artis, 26 January 1792 Southampton County bond. He registered in Southampton County on 1 June 1802: age 55, Mulatto, 5 feet 8-1/4 inches, freed by Joshua Vick Southampton County deed [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 228]. (His widow) Hannah Archer was taxable on a horse in 1805 and 1806. On 21 April 1807 the Southampton County court summoned the administrators of his estate George Artis and wife Hannah to give supplemental security for the administration of the estate [Minutes 1804-7, 276]. He may have been the father of

i. Eley, born about 1790, registered in Southampton County on 17 February 1827: age 37, very bright complected, 5 feet 11-1/2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1605]. He was a "f.n." taxable in the St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County household of Thomas Barnes in 1817 [PPTL 1807-21, frame 571].

2     ii. Lemuel1, born say 1795.

iii. Reuben, born about 1799, registered in Southampton County on 15 March 1827: age 28, rather light complection, 5 feet 11 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1612]. He was a "f.n." taxable in Evans Pope's St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County household in 1812 [PPTL 1807-21, frame 297].

iv. Burwell, born about 1802, registered in Southampton County on 12 April 1827: age 25, light complected, 5 feet 11 1/4 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1633].

v. Rebecca, born about 1804, registered in Southampton County on 15 March 1827: age 23, rather light complection, 5 feet 8 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1613].

 

2.    Lemuel1 Archer, born say 1795, was a "f.n." taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in Reuben Haithcock's household in 1814, in the household of Bryant Davis in 1817 [PPTL 1807-21, frames 293, 572] and head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:212]. He and his wife Dolly and their six children obtained free papers in Northampton County on 23 March 1831 and recorded them on 22 October 1838 in Logan County, Ohio [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 11]. Dolly (Dorothy) was devised land in Logan County, Ohio, by the 31 July 1835 Northampton County will of her father Nathaniel Newsom [WB 4:137]. Nathaniel Newsom owned land on the Roanoke River in Northampton County adjoining Halifax County [Northampton County DB 10:463, 479; WB 2:297]. Lemuel and Dorothy's children were

i. Jesse2, born about 1815, counted in the 1860 Logan County census in Jefferson Township, Zanesfield Post Office, with 7 children born in Ohio [Census, p.135].

ii. Tabitha.

iii. Anny.

iv. Eady.

v. Bedfort.

vi. Lemuel2.

 

ARMFIELD FAMILY

1.    Daniel1 Armfield, born say 1715, was the "Mullatto" servant of Robert Stubblefield on 21 February 1738 when his master brought him before the Essex County court for absenting himself from his service for one year and fifteen days [Orders 1736-8, 217]. He was in York County by 20 June 1743 when he sued Ambrose Jackson for debt. The parties reached agreement before the case came to trial. And he sued Edward Fuller for trespass, assault and battery on 17 February 1745/6. The court found in Daniel's favor and awarded him 40 shillings damages after hearing testimony from Joseph Lark who traveled twenty-one miles to testify and Pearson Picket who traveled twenty-five miles [W&I 19:197, 417, 423, 439]. He, a "free negro," and his wife Elizabeth registered the birth of their son Matthew in Bruton Parish, James City and York counties, in 1746 [Bruton Parish Register, 6]. On 19 January 1746/7 the court presented him for not listing his wife as a tithable [W&I 19:486]. Peter Gillett's suit against him was dismissed in York County court on 22 September 1747 because both parties were in agreement. On 15 August 1748 he sued the executors of John Crawley for debt, but the case was dismissed at his expense. Peter Gillett was an evidence against him. On 20 February he brought a second suit against Crawley's executors for a debt due by account, and the court ruled against him again. He sued Peter Gillett for trespass, assault and battery on 10 September 1760, and the court ordered Peter to pay him 6 pence. Daniel's witnesses were Thomas Blassingame, William Lyon, and David Bartley. He sued William Lyon, Jr., for trespass, assault and battery on 19 December 1763 and was awarded 40 shillings. On 17 December 1764 the court presented him for not listing his daughters Betty and Martha as tithables [Judgments & Orders 1746-52, 39, 123, 158-9, 177, 187; 1759-63, 184, 222, 321; 1763-5, 126, 171, 362]. On 4 March 1759 Elizabeth was paid 10 shillings by Anne Timson, orphan of William Timson, for serving as midwife to a slave [Guardians' Accounts 1736-1780, 316-7]. Daniel and Elizabeth were the parents of

i. Martha, born say 1740, sued by Anne Gwinn and her "next friend" Jane Savy (Savoy) in York County for trespass, assault and battery on 16 May 1763. She was found not guilty [Judgments & Orders 1763-5, 14, 37]. She was called "a free mulatto" when the birth of her bastard child William Allways was recorded in Bruton Parish in 1765. She and Israel Allways (Alvis), "free Mulattas," were married by 13 March 1767 when their daughter Elizabeth Allways was born [Bruton Parish Register, 29, 31].

2     ii. Elizabeth, born say 1742.

iii. Matthew1, born 26 February 1746.

iv. ?Mary, taxable in the upper district of York County on a free tithable, a horse and 4 cattle in 1783 [PPTL, 1782-1841, frame 72].

 

2.    Elizabeth Armfield, born about 1734, was sued for trespass, assault and battery in York County by Anne Gwinn and her "next friend" Jane Savy (Savoy) on 16 May 1763. She was found guilty and ordered to pay 20 shillings [Judgments & Orders 1763-5, 14, 37]. She was called "a free mulatto" when she registered the birth of her son James in Bruton Parish in 1766. She was taxable on her property in York County from 1782 to 1803: on 13 cattle in 1782, on 1-2 slaves from 1792 to 1797, on 2 free tithables in 1802, called Betty Lyons in 1790, 1791 and 1793 [PPTL, 1782-41, frames 69, 72, 106, 138, 147, 163, 173, 180, 193, 199, 209, 218, 227, 274, 284]. She registered in York County on 25 September 1800: 5 feet 6 inches high aged 66 years a bright Mulatto, long grey hair, born of free parents in the Parish of Bruton & County of York [Guardians' Accounts, 1780-1823, following the index, No. 12]. She was head of a York County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:870]. Her children were

i. ?Milly, born say 1760, a "Poor orphan" ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Bruton Parish on 19 May 1760 [Judgments & Orders 1759-63, 143].

ii. James, born 16 March 1766, "Bastard son of Elizabeth Armfield," called James Lyons when he was taxable in York County in 1788 [PPTL, 1782-1841, frame 141].

iii. Daniel2, born 15 February 1768, baptized 3 April [Bruton Parish Register, 27, 32, 35], called Daniel Lyons when he was taxable in York County from 1788 to 1814, taxable on a slave from 1795 onwards [PPTL, 1782-1841, frames 141, 152, 163, 211, 221, 230, 238, 245, 256, 266, 277, 287, 297, 307, 328, 391, 408].

3     iv. ?Matthew2, born about 1779.

v. ?Warren, born say 1781, taxable in York County in 1803 and 1805 [PPTL, 1782-1841, 284, 304].

vi. John Lyons, born 22 January 1783, baptized 26 March 1783, son of Betty Armfield.

vii. ?William Lyons, born about 1787, registered in York County on 16 December 1822: a bright Mulatto about 35 years of age...has short hair...born free. When William renewed his registration nine years later on 28 September 1831, the clerk added the notation: since the above has become bald, wears whiskers, grey Beard & much the appearance of an Indian [Free Negro Register, 1798-1831, no. 194].

viii. ?Nancy Lyons, head of a Richmond City household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:340].

 

3.    Matthew2 Armfield, born about 1779, was taxable on his own tithe in 1803 and taxable on a slave and a horse in 1805 [PPTL 1782-1841, frames 284, 304, 325, 362, 384, 402]. He registered as a "free Negro" in York County on 16 December 1822: about 43 years old 5 feet 7-1/4 Inches high [York County Register, no.189]. His wife Nancy Armfield born about 1787, registered on 19 September 1831: wife of Matt a person of light complexion about 43 or 44 years of age, 5 feet 1-1/2 inches high black eyes long thin face, high cheek bones. He was head of a York County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:870]. He was the father of

i. Betsy, born about 1808, registered in York County on 19 September 1831: daughter of Matt, light complexion, 23 years of age, four feet 9 inches high, full face, black eyes, fine long black hair...Dutch made & pouting lips [York County Free Negroes Register, 1831-50, nos. 283-4].

 

ARMSTRONG FAMILY

1.    Frances Armstrong, born say 1735, was probably the mother of Pegg Armstrong (no age or race mentioned) who was bound apprentice to William McPhersons in Norfolk County on 17 April 1760 [Orders 1759-63, 25]. She was living in the adjoining county of Henrico on 3 May 1762 and 2 June 1766 when the court ordered her "Mulatto" children: Thomas, Adam, Rachel, Judith, and Tobias bound out by the churchwardens of Henrico Parish [Orders 1755-62, 585; 1763-67, 577]. In July 1777 she was living in the adjoining county of Goochland when her son Bob Armstrong, "a Mulatto boy," was ordered bound out by the churchwardens of St. James Northam Parish [Orders 1771-78, 498]. Her children were

i. ?Margaret/ Pegg, born say 1752, bound apprentice in Norfolk County on 17 April 1760 [Orders 1759-63, 25].

ii. Thomas, born say 1753, a "mulatto" who ran away from John Jude of Cumberland County, Virginia, according to the 13 October 1768 issue of the Virginia Gazette (Rind).

2     iii. ?Milly, born say 1753.

iv. Adam, born say 1755, served in the infantry during the Revolution in Virginia. General Morgan received his pay of 102 pounds on 7 April 1783, and William Reynolds received his pay of 5 pounds on 24 January 1784 [NARA, M881, Roll 1090, frames 327-30 of 2028; https://www.fold3.com/image/23344857]. He received bounty land based on his discharge on 1 March 1780 by Colonel Porterfield after three years service [Revolutionary War Bounty Warrants, Armstrong, Adam, Digital Collections, LVA]. He married Mary Scott, 18 November 1796 Henrico County bond, Benjamin Scott security. He was taxable in the lower district of Henrico County from 1787 to 1788 and from 1807 to 1809 [PPTL 1782-1814, frames 119, 137, 508, 549, 571], taxable in Richmond City from 1791 to 1797 [PPTL 1787-1799].

3     v. Rachel, born say 1757.

4     vi. Judith1, born say 1759.

vii. Tobias, born say 1761, in the Muster of Light Infantry of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Posey's Detachment of Virginia Troops from 1 January to 1 April 1782 [NARA, M246, Roll 113, frame 683 of 752], enlisted in the Revolution in Virginia in May 1779 and served for the war according to an affidavit from Lieutenant N. Darby of the 1st Virginia Regiment on 30 June 1783 [Revolutionary War Bounty Warrants, Armstrong, Tobias, Digital Collections, LVA].

viii. Robert, born say 1777, bound apprentice in Goochland County in July 1777 [Orders 1771-78, 498]. He was a "FN" taxable in the northern district of Campbell County from 1792 to 1798 [PPTL, 1785-1814, frames 225, 299, 328, 385, 417]. He was living in Lynchburg on 16 February 1799 when he who received a certificate from George Jude of Campbell County stating that he had served his time from childhood to the age of twenty-one with trust and fidelity at which time he gave him his freedom [Headley, 18th Century Newspapers, 10]. He was a "Mo" taxable in Powhatan County from 1804 to 1810 [PPTL, 1787-1825, frames 275, 290, 337, 377].

 

2.    Milly Armstrong, born about 1753, registered as a "Free Negro" in Campbell County on 9 August 1803: 5 Feet 1-1/2 Inches; Years of Age: 50; Colour: black; born free in Hanover County [A Register of Free Negroes and Mulattoes, 3]. She may have been the mother of

5     i. Benjamin, born say 1769.

ii. William, a "free Negro" counted in Campbell County with a female over the age of sixteen in his household [PPTL 1785-1814, frame 892].

iii. Lucy, born say 1780, head of a Richmond City household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:339].

iv. Judith2, born about 1780, registered as a "Free Negro" in Campbell County on 20 January 1802: Age: 22; 5 Feet 6 Inches; Colour: black; born free.

v. Sally, born about 1785, registered in Campbell County on 9 August 1803: 5 feet 5 Inches, Age: 18; Colour: Yellowish; born free in Hanover County [A Register of Free Negroes and Mulattoes, 2].

 

3.    Rachel Armstrong, born say 1757, was living in Powhatan County on 15 February 1787 when the court bound her son William Armstrong as a shoemaker to Samuel White [Orders 1786-91, 80]. She was head of a Campbell County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:848]. She was the mother of

i. ?Frank, a "mulattoe" orphan bound by the churchwardens of Southam Parish to John Dean by order of the Cumberland County court on 26 June 1777 [Orders 1774-8, 405], ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Southam Parish in Powhatan County on 21 October 1779 [Orders 1777-84, 126]. He was a "Mulatto" taxable in Chesterfield County in 1791 [PPTL, 1786-1811, frames 98].

ii. William, born about 1778, a "Mo" taxable in Powhatan County from 1800 to 1815, listed with 2 "free negroes & mulattoes over the age of 16" in 1813 [PPTL, 1787-1825, frames 203, 220, 252, 275, 290, 337, 377, 417, 435, 476]. He married Nancy Coy, twenty-one years of age, "Free Negroes," 13 July 1809 Powhatan County bond, Charles Coy surety. He registered in Powhatan County on 19 December 1822: Age: 44; Color: Yellow; Stature: 5'9-1/2"; Born Free [Register of Free Negroes, no. 83].

iii. ?James, a "Mo" taxable in Powhatan County in 1804 and 1805 [PPTL, 1787-1825, frames 275, 290].

 

4.    Judith1 Armstrong, born say 1759, was living in Powhatan County on 18 September 1783 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her son David Armstrong [Orders 1777-84, 318]. She obtained a certificate of freedom in Powhatan County on 14 July 1804: a free woman that served the last of her time with me. Sam H. Saunders(?) [Armstrong, Judea (F): Free Negro Certificate, 1808, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA]. She was the mother of

i. David, born about 1780, a "F.N." taxable in Campbell County in 1807 [PPTL, 1785-1814, frame 691]. He registered in Powhatan County on 21 August 1805: aged twenty five years, Black, five feet 10-1/2 inches high and born free [Armstrong, David (25): Free Negro Certificate, 1805, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA].

ii. Fanny, "Mulatto girl daughter of Judith Armstrong," bound by the Powhatan County court to Edmund Toney on 15 September 1796 [Orders 1794-8, 285].

 

5.    Benjamin Armstrong, born say 1769, was a "F.N." taxable in Campbell County from 1804 to 1814: taxable on 2 males in 1804 and 1811, listed with a woman over the age of sixteen in 1813 [PPTL, 1785-1814, frames 592, 691, 892, 922] and head of a Campbell County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:880]. He was the father of

i. Fanny, born say 1790, daughter of Benjamin Armstrong, married Peter Moss, 27 December 1809 Campbell County bond, Peter Moss and Benjamin Armstrong bondsmen.

 

ARNOLD FAMILY

1.    Mary Arnold, born say 1720, was living in Carteret County, North Carolina, on 4 June 1751 when the county court ordered her "Mulatto" daughter Margaret bound to Jabez Weeks [Minutes 1747-64, fol. 18a]. Her children were

2     i. ?Moses, born say 1740.

ii. Margaret, born about 1744, seven years old when she was bound apprentice on 4 June 1751.

 

2.    Moses Arnold, born say 1740, and his wife Mary were taxables in the Western District of Norfolk County, Virginia, from 1761 to 1768, and he was a "free Mulatto" taxable in the district on the south side of Tanners Creek until 1780 [Wingo, Norfolk County Tithables 1751-65, 165, 211; 1766-80, 37, 64, 110, 163, 166, 271]. He was taxable in Norfolk County from 1783 to 1791: taxable on a slave under the age of sixteen named Bess in 1783; called a "free mulato" in 1788 [PPTL, 1782-91, frames 410, 558, 621, 637, 675; 1791-1812, frame 17] and head of a Norfolk County household of 2 "whites" in 1785 [VA:94]. He may have been the father of

3     i. Robert1, born say 1770.

4     ii. Rhoda, born say 1772.

 

3.    Robert1 Arnold, born about 1769, was a "free Negro" taxable in St. Ann's Parish, Albemarle County, in 1789 and from 1798 to 1801 [PPTL, 1782-1799, frames 194, 528, 567; 1800-1813, frames 3, 45]. He was taxable in Nelson County from 1809 to 1826. He was counted in the "List of free negroes & Molattoes" in 1814 as a forty-five-year-old blacksmith with twenty-eight-year-old (wife) Dolly Arnold and with (children) John/ Jonathan (fourteen), Drury (nine), Sary (seven), Elvira/ Elvinia (four) and Robert (two) in 1814 [PPTL 1809-45, frames 3, 19, 34, 79, 98, 119, 177, 190, 195, 306]. And he was head of a Nelson County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:676] and 10 "free colored" in 1830. His wife Doratha Arnold, born about 1787, registered as a "free Negro" in Amherst County on 8 November 1843: wife of Robert Arnold, a bright mulatto - about 56 years of age - 5 feet 6 Inches high - Born free. They were the parents of

i. Jonathan, registered in Amherst County on 8 November 1843: born on the 12th of March 1804...a brown mulatto...son of Robert & Doshia Arnold.

ii. Drury, registered in Amherst County on 8 November 1843: born 15th August 1809...dark mulatto...son of Robert & Doshia Arnold.

iii. Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Arnold, married Edward Winters in Amherst County in 1839. Elizabeth registered in Amherst County on 15 November 1843: wife of Edward Winters bright mulatto...24 years old...born free.

iv. ?Elvira Ann, married Thomas Winters in Amherst County in 1833. Elvira registered in Amherst County on 18 March 1844: wife of Thomas Winters, free woman of colour 29 years old bright mulatto, born free [McLeroy, Strangers in their Midst, 62, 64, 65, 67, 112].

v. Robert2, born about 1812.

 

4.    Rhoda Arnold, born say 1772, was taxable on a horse in King William County from 1833 to 1842: listed next to Joseph Arnold in 1834, in the same household as Robert and Joseph Arnold in 1839 [PPTL 1833-51]. She was said to have been one of the last speakers of the Pamunkey language according to Reverend Dalrymple who visited the tribe in 1844 [Rountree, Pocahontas's People, 205]. She may have been the mother of

i. Joseph, a "Mulatto" taxable in King William County in 1813, called an "Indian" from 1844 to 1848 [PPTL 1782-1832; 1833-51]. He was one of the Pamunkey Indians who signed a letter to the governor on 26 March 1842 rebutting a petition by King William County residents that their land should be sold because "they all have one fourth or more of negro blood, and as proof of this...not one individual can be found among them whose grandfathers and grandmothers, one or more is or was not a negro" by stating that "there are many here that are more than half-blooded Indian, tho we regret to say that there are some here that are not of our Tribe [Freeholders: Petition, King William County, 1843-01-20, Legislative Petitions Digital Collection, LVA; Pamunkey Indians: Counter Petition, King William County, 1843-01-21, Legislative Petitions Digital Collection, LVA].

ii. Robert3, taxable on a horse in King William County from 1839 to 1849, called an "Indian" starting in 1844 [PPTL 1833-51]. He was one of the Pamunkey Indians who signed a letter to the governor in the 1840s [Rountree, Pocahontas's People, 344].

 

ARTIS FAMILY

1.    Hester1 (Easter) Artis, alias Anderson, born say 1687, was one of the slaves freed by the 29 October 1712 will of John Fulcher of Norfolk County, Virginia [WB 9:223]. The August 1733 Bertie County court described her as "a free Negroe woman living in Virga." when her attorney, Richard Washington, asked the court to bind "her Son, a Negroe boy named Robin Artis," as an apprentice. The court ordered that Robin,

adjudged by the court to be 12 years,...be bound to John Hodgson Gent. of this Precinct and the Court...knowing this sd boy's father to be a slave...[Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, I:93].

Robin was probably named for Robin Richards, another slave that Fulcher freed with the Andersons. Hester's children were

i. Robin, born about 1721.

2     ii. ?John1, born say 1723.

3     iii. ?Abraham1, born say 1724.

4     iv. ?Martha1, born say 1731.

5     v. ?Lewis1, born say 1733.

vi. ?Edward1, born say 1736, sued Joseph Newsom in Southampton County on 10 March 1757 for trespass, assault and battery. The court permitted Edward a continuance to take the deposition of William Shuffle, and on 12 August that year Newsom was found guilty and ordered to pay Edward 5 shillings [Orders 1754-9, 342, 363, 377-8]. Joseph Cobb sued him for a 2 pound, 15 shillings debt on 10 December 1764. Abraham Artis was his security and Robert Newsom was a witness to the note. He sued William Broom on 18 February 1765 for 3 pounds due by promissory note of 13 December 1764. Nathan Pope sued him for 10 pounds damages on 13 April 1764 for his failure to fulfill his promise (making his mark) of 21 November 1761 to raise a filly to the age of two years [Judgment Papers 1764-5, frames 393-6; 1765-6, frames 242-4; 317, 317-322].

 

2.    John1 Artis, born say 1723, sold a horse and household goods to Albridgton Jones in Isle of Wight County on 12 August 1746 [DB 7:448]. He was granted land in Johnston County, North Carolina, on 20 June 1749 and sold this land on 18 October 1756 [Haun, Johnston County Deed Book, II:137]. He was called a "negro" in Southampton County on 12 October 1752 when he asked the court to add his wife Sarah to the list of tithables. He was sued in court by James Jordan Scott on 8 January 1756 and by John Pope on 14 July 1757, but the case was dismissed when the parties agreed. On 13 October 1758 Temble and Fisher sued him for a debt of 10 pounds which he failed to pay, so the sheriff sold his effects: a tar kiln, heap of lightwood, three sows, thirteen shoats, gourds, three bushels of corn, a cider hogshead, two stools, a washing tub, table, shoe lasts, a couch frame, three benches, a field of growing corn, potatoes, peas, and cotton [Orders 1749-54, 169, 260, 283; 1754-9, 361, 465, 484]. He was sued for a debt of 2 pounds, 6 shillings by Albridgton Jones in Southampton County, Virginia court on 13 November 1760. Since he had left the county, the sheriff attached part of his estate which was in the hands of Matthew Charles [Orders 1759-63, 75]. On 8 February 1776 the court ordered the churchwardens of St. Luke's Parish to bind out his "poor children" Martha, Joyce, Mildred, Milbra, Hester, Tempe, and Hardy H. [Orders 1772-7, 428; Minutes 1775-8]. He was the father of

6     i. ?John2, Jr., born say 1740.

7     ii. ?Archibald, born say 1753.

iii. ?Lauer, born say 1755, head of an Edgecombe County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1790 [NC:54].

iv. ?William1, born say 1745, died before 11 June 1772 when the inventory of his estate was returned to court in Southampton County [Orders 1772-7, 8].

8    v. Martha2, born about 1770.

vi. Joyce.

vii. Mildred1, born say 1772, mother of James Artis who was ordered bound out in Southampton County on 10 July 1794. Her suit against a member of the Bryant family abated on 8 January 1795 [Minutes 1793-9, 100, 137]. James was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in 1809 and 1810 [PPTL 1807-21, frames 66, 163].

9     viii. Milbry, born about 1765.

ix. Hester/ Esther, married Simon Vick, 8 March 1792 Southampton County bond, Giles Vick surety. Simon was head of a Southampton County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:54].

10   x. Tempy1, born say 1768.

xi. Hardy, born say 1770, taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1796 to 1798 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 181, 259, 309]. He married Elizabeth Howard, 25 June 1799 Granville County, North Carolina bond, and was head of a Warrenton, Warren County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:785].

 

3.    Abraham1 Artis, born say 1724, purchased 50 acres in Nottoway Parish, Isle of Wight County, adjoining John Vick on 24 March 1745 [DB 7:274]. On 13 June 1754 he was one of fourteen heads of household who were sued in Southampton County court for failing to pay the discriminatory tax on the female members of their households. William Bynum informed the court that he had failed to pay the tax on Hannah Artis who was probably his wife. Robert Newsom provided security for his bail. He pled not guilty at first but withdrew his plea and confessed when Francis Locust, James Brooks, James Brooks, Jr., John Byrd and John Byrd, Jr., were found guilty. He was fined 500 pounds of tobacco [Orders 1749-54, 501, 512; 1754-9, 25, 38; Judgment Papers 1752-5, frames 709-716]. Richard Vick sued him for a debt on 14 March 1755, but the case was dismissed when they agreed, and the court awarded him 3 pounds, 8 shillings for a debt due to him by account from Vick [Orders 1754-9, 64, 67]. He died before 18 April 1772 when his Southampton County estate was appraised [WB 2:492]. He may have been the ancestor of

11   i. Lydia, born say 1746.

ii. Edward2, born say 1750, fined 500 pounds of tobacco on 10 January 1771 for not listing himself as a tithable in Southampton County [Orders 1768-72, 345]. He was called Ned Artis in 1772 when he was paid 12 shillings by the estate of Abram Artis, deceased [WB 3:51-2]. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, on 2 slaves and a horse in 1782 and taxed on his own tithe from 1783 to 1809, called a "free Negro" from 1804 to 1806 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 507, 543, 555, 584, 613, 632, 654, 704, 754, 868, 891; 1792-1806, frames 72, 154, 180, 308, 404, 505, 542, 612, 795, 833; 1807-21, frames 44, 66]. He was head of a Southampton County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:54].

12   iii. Absolem1, born say 1755.

13   iv. Ann1, born say 1760.

14   v. George1, born say 1760.

vi. John3, born say 1761, taxable in Southampton County from 1782 to 1802: his tax charged to James Magget in 1787; taxable in 1789 and 1790; taxable on his own tithe and 16-21 year-old Simon Vick in 1796; called John Artis, Sr., from 1799 to 1801 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 508, 513; 704; 1792-1806, frames 369, 404, 508, 513, 740, 754]. He married Pherbe Caton, 10 September 1800 Southampton County bond, Nathan Worrell surety.

vii. Burwell, born about 1762, a soldier born in Southampton County and living there in September 1780 when he enlisted: planter, black complexion [Register & description of Noncommissioned officers & Privates, LVA accession no. 24296, by http://revwarapps.org/b69.pdf (p.70)]. John Taylor received his final pay for service in the infantry on 13 May 1783 [NARA, M881, https://www.fold3.com/image/23344935]. He married Angey Hurst, 21 August 1783 Southampton County marriage [Minister's Returns, 633]. He was taxable in Southampton County from 1785 to 1792, taxable in John Jackson's household in 1789 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 555, 584, 632, 704, 713, 754, 811, 868].

viii. Miriam1, born about 1770, married Reuben Haithcock, 10 February 1791 Southampton County bond, Charles Birdsong security, 17 February marriage. She registered in Southampton County on 31 July 1810: Miriam Hathcock, age 40, Dark Mulatto, 5 feet 3-1/2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 772].

ix. Martha2, born about 1770, may have been the Patty Artis who married Robert Clements, 22 January 1801 Southampton County bond, 23 January marriage. Patt Clements was head of a Southampton County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:87]. She was about 40 years old when she registered in Southampton County on 30 July 1810: Martha Clements, age 40, Blk., 5 feet 5-3/4 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, nos. 28, 729].

x. Ainge, married Sampson Cary, 5 March 1796 Southampton County bond, Micajah Johnson surety.

xi. John4, born about 1775, taxable in Southampton County in 1792 and from 1798 to 1820: taxable with Joseph Artis in Joel Newsum's household in 1792; called John Artis, Jr., from 1798 to 1804 [PPTL, 1782-1792, frame 881; 1792-1806, frames 309, 506, 513, 543, 612, 681, 796; 1807-11, frames 44, 66, 163, 184]. He married Blytha Powell, 15 February 1802 Southampton County bond, John Pope surety, Evans Pope witness. He registered in Southampton County on 1 August 1810: age 35, Blk., 5 feet 10 inches, free born. Tabitha, who was apparently his wife, registered the same day: age 35, Blk., 5 feet 1-1/2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, nos. 800, 801]. He was head of a Southampton County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:58]. He and his wife Tabitha were living on Thomas Newsum's land in 1812; he and his unnamed wife and daughter Lucy were living on Newsum's land in 1813; they were taxable on a horse in 1814; his wife was called Faithy when they were planters living on Thomas Newsum's land in 1815; he was taxable with son Cordy in 1820 [PPTL [PPTL, 1807-21, frames 283, 311, 411, 435, 780]. Faith, born about 1794, registered in Southampton County on 13 July 1821: age 27, rather of a bright complection, 4 feet 10 1/2 inches, free born. Cordall registered in Southampton County on 8 August 1821: age 22, rather bright complection, 5 feet 3-1/4 inches, Cert. by Jno. Pope free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, nos. 1282, 1286].

xii. Joseph, born about 1782, registered in Southampton County on 16 August 1810: age 28, Blk., 5 feet 5-1/2 inches, free born and registered again on 16 June 1831. His wife was apparently identical to Ona Artis who registered on 7 August 1810: age 27, Mulatto, 5 feet 3 inches, free born and registered again on 16 June 1831: age 48, yellow, 5 feet 3 inches, free born, see no. 837 [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, nos. 833, 837, 1846, 1847]. Joseph was head of a Southampton County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:76]. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1801 to 1804; taxable in the household of Joseph Barnes in 1805; a hatter living with his wife Oney on Henry Person's land in 1813; listed with wife Onny in 1815; on Aggy Kersey's land in 1817 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 506, 543, 612, 681, 796, 833; 1807-21, frames 44, 163, 184, 311, 411, 435, 571].

 

4.    Martha1/ Pat Artis, born say 1731, was living in Southampton County on 13 October 1758 when the court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her children Lucretia, Elvin and Alderman [Orders 1754-9, 463]. She was the mother of

i. Lucretia, born say 1753.

ii. Elvin, born say 1755.

iii. Alderman, born say 1757.

15   iv. ?Priscilla, born about 1761.

 

5.    Lewis1 Artist, born say 1733, was sued in Southampton County court on 14 December 1752 by Thomas Jarrell. The court awarded Jarrell 20 shillings according to the act of assembly in that case provided. On 13 June 1754 he was one of fourteen heads of household who were sued in Southampton County court for failing to pay the discriminatory tax on the female members of their households. He failed to pay tax on Mary Artis who was probably his wife [Orders 1749-54, 299, 321-2, 354, 501, 512; 1754-9, 25, 38; Judgment Papers 1752-5, frames 703-7]. He sued William Lane in court on 9 July 1761, and the court ordered a commission to take the deposition of several witnesses in Carolina. The suit was decided in Artis's favor when Lane failed to appear [Orders 1759-63, 116, 138, 145]. He was listed in the undated colonial Northampton County, North Carolina Muster Roll of Captain James Fason's Company [Mil. T.R. 1-3]. He was sued for debt in Southampton County by merchant James Jordan Scott on 12 September 1771 for a balance due of 7 pounds, 13 shillings on his account from 1764 to 1767 which included cloth, buttons, buckles, needles, linen, a blanket, shoes, brandy, rum, molasses, salt, and barrels of tar [Judgment Papers, 1773-1777, frame 611]. He was added to William Blunt's list of tithables on 12 September 1776. He was taxable in Southampton County on 2 horses and 5 cattle in 1782, 2 horses and 8 cattle in 1783 and taxable in St. Luke's Parish until 1793 when his name was crossed off the list of tithables [PPTL 1782-92, 508, 513, 555, 584, 868; 1792-1806, frame 45]. His suit for debt against William Vicks was submitted for arbitration on 9 July 1784. The court awarded him an attachment against Richard Demery's property on 9 December 1784 to satisfy a debt of 4,000 pounds of tobacco. He and Abraham Artis were sued for a debt of 4 pounds on 11 May 1787 [Orders 1768-72, 449; 1772-7, 445; 1778-84, 464; 1784-9, 7, 272]. He was tithable in Southampton County in 1782. His children were

16   i. ?Abraham2, born say 1765.

ii. ?Mary, a Black person 12-50 years old living alone in Dupree's District of Northampton County for the 1786 State Census. The parish wardens of St. George Parish, Northampton County, paid Peter Steward for keeping her from 1 January to 1 April 1800 [CR 71.927.1].

iii. Honour, born say 1773, "daughter of Lewis Artis," married Luke Archer, 26 January 1792 Southampton County bond, Newit Vick surety, 27 January marriage. Luke registered in Southampton County on 1 June 1802: age 55, Mulatto, 5 feet 8-1/4 inches high, emancipated by Joshua Vick, So. deed [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 228]. His widow Hannah Archer was taxable in Southampton County on a horse in 1805 and 1806 [PPTL 1792-1806, frame 796]. On 21 April 1807 the Southampton County court summoned George Artis and wife Hannah, the administrators of Luke Archer's estate, to give supplemental security for the administration of the estate [Minutes 1804-7, 276]. Hannah Artis registered in Southampton County on 30 July 1810: age 35, Blk., 5 feet 6 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 721]. She may have been the Hannah Artress who obtained a certificate of freedom in Rockingham County, Virginia, on 25 February 1832: Sally Michel made oth that she knew Hannah Artress for about eighteen or nineteen years to her certain knowledge had six children: William, Fanney, Maryah, Stapleton, Lacisey, and Elias. Her daughter Maria registered in Rockingham County on 13 March 1832: between 21 & 22 years of age, 5 feet 1-1/2 inches high, a Bright Mulatto woman and was born free [Artress, Hannah: Free Negro Affidavit, 1832, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA].

iv. ?Benjamin, born about 1783, registered in Petersburg on 13 October 1806: a brown free Negro man, five feet six inches high, twenty three years old, born free & raised in Northampton County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 398]. He may have been the Benjamin Artis who complained to the Southampton County court against his master John Day on 17 August 1801 [Minutes 1799-1803, 207].

 

6.    John2 Artis Jr., born say 1740, purchased land in Edgecombe County on the south side of Toisnot Swamp near Mill Branch on 10 June 1765 [DB C:369]. On 21 December 1782 he sold his Edgecombe County land [DB E:256]. He and Lauer Artis were probably the ancestors of

i. Lewis2, born before 1776, head of an Edgecombe County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [NC:731] and 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:731].

ii. John5, born about 1763, enlisted in 1781 in Abraham Shepard's Tenth Regiment, Colonel Hall's Company. He and John Godwin were imprisoned for robbery in Halifax on 15 August 1781. He left the service on 1 November 1782. Benjamin McCulloch drew his final pay for Arthur Pearce [Clark, State Records of North Carolina, 17:190, 16:1007, 15:609; N.C. Historical & Genealogical Register, II:128]. He was a buyer at the 2 March 1803 Edgecombe County sale of estate of Robert Peale [Watson, Estate Records of Edgecombe County, 201]. He was about fifty six years old on 27 April 1819 when he appeared in Cumberland County, North Carolina court to apply for a pension and claim twelve months pay as a private in the Revolution. He stated that he enlisted in May 1781 and joined Captain Clem Hall's Company of the 2nd Regiment. William Lomack testified that he saw John join the regiment with General Green at the headquarters at High Hills of Santee, South Carolina in June 1781 [NARA, S.41416, M804, roll 80, frame 837, https://www.fold3.com/image/246/10951920]. He was head of an Orange County, North Carolina household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:354].

iii. Thomas, served in the Revolution from North Carolina [N.C. Archives, State Treasurer Record Group, Military Papers, Revolutionary War Army Accounts, IV:35, folio 3].

iv. Stephen Arters, enlisted for 12 months in Hall's Company of the North Carolina Line in 1781 and was discharged on 21 November 1782 [Clark, The State Records of North Carolina, XVI:1007].

v. Joseph1, paid for serving in the militia in Wilmington District during the Revolution [NCDAR, Roster of Soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution, 415; North Carolina Revolutionary War Pay Vouchers, https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q2WT-L5Z3], perhaps the Josiah Artis who was in a list of men raised for the Continenta Line [N.C. Archives, Troop Returns, B4F43, http://www.digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p16062coll26/id/701/rec/2].

vi. Edy, born say 1775, a "base born" child ordered by the 26 August 1776 Edgecombe County court bound as an apprentice to Joseph Sims and his wife Charity [Minutes 1772-84, n.p.].

vii. Mary, born before 1776, head of an Edgecombe County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:102]. She was a buyer at the 2 March 1803 Edgecombe County sale of estate of Robert Peale [Watson, Estate Records of Edgecombe County, 201].

viii. Absalom2, born before 1776, head of an Edgecombe County household of 2 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:102].

ix. Richard1, born say 1779, a "Mulatto" boy apprenticed as a cooper to John Norwood by the 25 November 1782 Edgecombe County court [Minutes 1772-84, n.p.]. He was a buyer at the 2 March 1803 Edgecombe County sale of estate of Robert Peale [Watson, Estate Records of Edgecombe County, 201].

x. William2, born say 1780, a "Mulatto" head of an Edgecombe County household of 2 "other free" in 1800 [NC:179] and 3 in 1810 [NC:731].

xi. Winney, born say 1781, a "Mulatto" child ordered bound by the Edgecombe County court on 25 November 1782 [Minutes 1772-84], head of an Edgecombe County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:732].

xii. Ann, born say 1782, head of an Edgecombe County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [NC:732]. She was a buyer at the 2 March 1803 Edgecombe County sale of estate of Robert Peale [Watson, Estate Records of Edgecombe County, 201].

xiii. Champion, born about 1790, head of an Edgecombe County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [NC:731] and 6 "free colored" in Cumberland County, North Carolina, in 1820 [NC:154].

 

7.    Archibald Artis, born say 1753, was paid for serving in the militia in Wilmington District, North Carolina, during the Revolution [NCDAR, Roster of Soldiers from North Carolina in the American Revolution, 415]. He received voucher no. 511 in New Bern District for 9 pounds specie on 19 August 1782 for militia duty in Anson County as per Captain Griffen's Pay Roll https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:Q2WT-RSCG]. He died before November 1782 when Stephen Powell was granted administration of his estate in Johnston County on a bond of 200 pounds. The account of sales of the estate totaled a little over 43 pounds [Haun, Johnston County Court Minutes, III:232].  He was mentioned in the Revolutionary War pension application of Holiday Haithcock which had a testimonial by William Bryan, a Justice of the Peace:

... that in the times of our Revolutionary War free negroes and mulattoes mustered in the ranks with white men in said State ..This affiant has frequently mustered in company with said free negroes and mulattoes ...That class of persons were equally liable to draft - and frequently volunteered in the public Service. This affiant was in the army a short time at Wilmington at the time Craig was near that place and remembers that one mulatto was in his company as a common soldier whose name Archibald Artis - Sworn to and subscribed this 21 day November 1834.

[NARA, R.4812, M804, roll 1263, frame 437; https://www.fold3.com/image/1/22996357]. Since he served in the Revolutionary War and died about 1782, he may have died while in the service. Delilah Artis, who was taxable on 60 acres in Johnston County in 1784, was probably his widow [GA 64.1]. In May 1786 the Johnston County sheriff was ordered to bring two of his orphans (unnamed) into court to be bound out [Haun, Johnston County Court Minutes, III:325]. Delila was head of a "free colored" Wayne County household in 1820 [NC:457]. Perhaps Archibald and Delila's children were

i. Luke, born 1776-94, head of a Johnston County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:260].

ii. Joseph, born 1776-94, head of a Wayne County household of 4 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:457]. In 1840 he was over fifty-five years old, head of a household of 3 "free colored" in Harrison Township, Vigo County, Indiana.

 

8.    Martha2 Artis, born about 1770, was called Patsy Artis when she registered in Southampton County on 12 June 1794: about 28 years old, a free woman born of free parents in Southampton, black. She was a plaintiff in a suit against a member of the Bryant family which abated in Southampton County court on 8 January 1795 [Minutes 1793-9, 137].  She was the mother of

i. Rhoda, born about 1784, registered in Prince Edward County on 20 August 1811: a black woman aged about twenty seven years, about five feet two & a half inches high, residing in Prince Edward County, daughter of Patsey Artis a free woman [Artis, Rhoda, (F, 27): Free Negro Certificate, 1811, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA].

ii. Mason, born about 1786, obtained a certificate in Prince Edward County in August 1811: reported to be daughter of Patsey Artis, 25, 5'5" [Orders 1811-13, 120].

iii. Burwell, born about 1788, registered in Prince Edward County in February 1811: a black man aged about twenty three years, about five feet six Inches High, born of Patsey Artis a free woman [Artis, Burwell (M, 23): Free Negro Certificate, 1811, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA].

iv. ?Patsey, born about 1793, obtained a certificate of her freedom in Prince Edward County in August 1813: woman of dark complexion, born of free parents, 20, 5'5-1/2" [Orders 1814-18, 578].

 

9.    Milbry Artis, born about 1765, daughter of John Artis, was bound apprentice by the churchwardens of St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, on 8 February 1776 [Orders 1772-7, 428; Minutes 1775-8]. She was the mother of Amy and Polly Artis who were ordered bound out in Southampton County on 10 July 1794 [Minutes 1793-9, 100]. She registered in Southampton County on 28 July 1810: age 45, blk., 5 feet 6 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 710]. She was taxable on a horse in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1809 to 1811, taxable on a free male tithable in 1810; listed with her son Isham, daughter Polly, Amey, and Matildar on Jacob Barrett's land in 1812; a spinner living with her daughter Matilda on William Farguson's land in 1813, listed with son Israel in 1817 [PPTL 1807-21, frames 284, 311, 571]. She was the mother of

i. Amy, born about 1785, registered in Southampton County on 28 July 1810: age 25, Blk., 5 feet 5-3/4 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 711]. She had an illegitimate child by Solomon Hurst before 19 March 1804 [Minutes 1803-4, unpaged].

ii. Polly, born about 1788, registered in Southampton County on 28 July 1810: age 22, Blk., 5 feet 6 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 712].

iii. Isham, listed as a taxable in his mother's household 1812.

iv. Matilda, listed in her mother's household in 1812.

v. Israel2, listed in his mother's household in 1817.

 

10.    Tempy1 Artis, born say 1768, poor child of John Artis, was ordered bound out by the churchwardens of St. Luke's Parish on 8 February 1776 [Orders 1772-7, 428]. She was the mother of Norborn and Edwin Artis who were ordered bound out by the overseers of the poor of Nottoway Parish, Southampton County, on 15 October 1804 [Minutes 1803-4, unpaged]. She was the mother of

i. Norborn, born about 1794, ordered bound out on 15 October 1804. He registered in Southampton County on 7 January 1816: age 22, blk., 5 feet 6 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 995].

ii. Edwin.

 

11.   Lydia Artis, born say 1746, was living in Southampton County on 11 October 1764 when the court ordered her summoned to answer the charge of contempt [Judgment Papers 1764-5, frames 543-4] and on 10 August 1769 when her son Jacob was bound out by the churchwardens of St. Luke's Parish [Orders 1768-72, 182]. She was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, on her son Isham in 1794 and 1796 [PPTL 1792-1806, frame 72, 180]. She was head of a Southampton County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:86]. Her children were

i. Mildred2, a "poor" child of Lydia Artis bound out by the churchwardens of St. Luke's Parish on 14 August 1777 [Orders 1772-7, 492]. She was head of a Southampton County household of 12 "other free" in 1810 [VA:67].

17   ii. Jacob1, born say 1766.

iii. Jordan, born about 1767, a "poor child" of Lid Artis ordered bound out by the Southampton County court on 11 July 1776 [Orders 1772-7, 437]. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in William Pope's household in 1789 and taxable in his own household from 1791 to 1796 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 717, 811, 868; 1792-1806, frames 45, 72, 154, 180]. He registered in Southampton County on 3 September 1797: age 30, Black man 5 8-1/2 inches, Free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 117]. He was a seventy-three-year-old "free man of color" living in Washington County, Texas, in 1840 when he petitioned to remain in the state [Schweninger, Race, Slavery, and Free Blacks, Series 1, 218].

iv. Isham, born say 1774, son of Lydia Artis, bound out in Southampton County on 14 September 1780 [Orders 1778-84, 132]. He was taxable in his mother's household in 1794 and taxable in his own household from 1795 to 1804. He and his wife Lydia were listed in Southampton County in 1814 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 154, 180, 258, 308, 369, 404, 542, 612; 1807-21, frame 411].

 

12.    Absolem1 Artis, born about 1745, was living in Southampton County before 18 January 1769 when his payment of 2 pounds, 6 shillings to James Jordan Scott (a merchant) for the account of Robert Newsom, Jr. was recorded [Judgment Papers, 1768-9, frame 1036]. On 12 September 1771 James Jordan Scott's suit against him was dismissed at his costs. Abraham Artis provided his bail [Orders 1768-72, 447; Judgment Papers 1773-7, frame 615]. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1782 to 1813: taxable on a free male tithable aged 16-21 and a horse in 1787, taxable on his unnamed son in 1805, taxable on 3 persons in 1807, 2 in 1809, 2 in 1811, living on Blaney's land with his wife Creacy and daughter Vilet in 1813 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 513, 555, 584, 613, 632, 654, 704, 754, 811; 1792-1806, frames 45, 154, 180, 258, 308, 369, 404, 505, 542, 612, 681, 795, 833; 1807-21, frames 44, 66, 163, 184]. He was head of a Southampton County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:57]. He registered in Southampton County on 2 August 1810: age 65, Blk, 5 feet 7 inches, free born. His wife Creesy registered the same day: age 60, yellow, 5 feet 2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 816, 817]. His children were

i. ?Joshua, born about 1770, registered in Southampton County on 1 August 1810: age 40, Blk., 5 feet 11 inches, free born. Jemima, who was apparently his wife, registered the same day: age 30, Blk., 5 feet 5 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, nos. 809, 810]. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in William Pope's household in 1790, taxable in Isaac Pope's household in 1791, in Joel Newsum's household in 1793, listed with his wife Jemima and daughter Pris on Thomas Newsom's land in 1813, listed with his son Henry in 1820, with daughter Bitha and son Absalom in 1822 [PPTL 1782-92, frame 767, 821; 1792-1806, frames 59, 72, 154, 180, 258, 308, 369, 404, 505, 542, 612, 795, 833; 1807-21, frames 44, 163, 311, 411, 571, 780], head of a Southampton County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:60].

ii. ?Abraham3, born about 1774, registered in Southampton County on 8 August 1800: age 26, Black, 5 feet 8 3/4 inches, born of free parents [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 148]. He registered the certificate in Norfolk County [Freed Negro loose papers, Chesapeake County Courthouse; Artis, Abraham: Certificate of Freedom, 1800, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA]. He was taxable on a horse in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in 1802 and 1803. He and his wife Cyntha were "fn's" living on William Simmons's land in 1813, taxable on a horse in 1814 [PPTL 1792-1806, frame 543, 612; 1807-21, frames 311, 411].

iii. ?Israel1, born about 1776, registered in Southampton County on 28 March 1798: age 22, blackman, 5 feet 6 inches, free born, renewed March 6 1801 [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 122]. He was taxable in Southampton County in Buxton Barnes' household from 1794 to 1796, listed in his own household from 1797 to 1800 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 73, 155, 182, 259, 309, 370, 404].

iv. Levinia (Viney), married Artis Powell, with Absolem Artist's consent, 23 July 1800 Southampton County bond, Hanson Pope security, 18 August marriage.

v. ?Charles, born about 1783, married Mason Powell, 30 December 1801 Southampton County bond, Evans Pope, surety. He registered in Southampton County on 2 August 1810 (the same day as Absolem and Creasy Artis): age 27, Blk., 5 feet 4 inches, free born. (His wife) Mason registered the same day: age 25, yellow, 5 feet 2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, nos. 815, 818]. He was head of a Southampton County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:60]. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1801 to 1803, taxable in Jonas Bryant's household in 1805, charged with his own tax from 1806 to 1811, taxable with his wife Mason on Ben Worrell's land in 1812 and on Isaac Pope's land in 1813, living on Burwell Bryant's land in 1817 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 506, 543, 612, 795, 833; 1807-21, frames 44, 163, 311, 411, 571].

vi. Violet.

 

13.    Ann1 Artis, born say 1760, was mother of Elizabeth and Tempy Artis, poor children ordered bound out in Southampton County on 14 October 1784. Her daughter Mason was ordered bound out on 12 July 1786 [Orders 1778-84, 507; 1784-9, 187]. She was head of a Southampton County household of 7 "other free" in 1810 [VA:54]. She was taxable in Southampton County on a horse in 1803, listed with her unnamed daughter on Joel Newsom's land in 1813 [PPTL 1792-1806, frame 648; 1807-21, frame 311]. She was the mother of

i. Elizabeth, a poor child bound out on 14 October 1784.

ii. Tempy2, a poor child bound out on 14 October 1784.

iii. Mason, born about 1779, registered in Southampton County on 7 April 1824: age 45, Mulatto, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 1452].

 

14.    George1 Artis, born say 1760, was head of a Northampton County, North Carolina household of 3 "other free" in 1790 [NC:74], 5 in 1810 [NC:710] (and 5 "other free" in Southampton County in 1810 [VA:53]), and 3 "free colored" in Northampton County, North Carolina, in 1820 [NC:212]. Moses Newsom bequeathed him one silver dollar by his 17 September 1805 Northampton County will. His first wife was apparently Martha Newsom, daughter of Moses Newsom [WB 2:297]. He had apparently married the widow of Luke Archer by 21 April 1807 when the Southampton County court summoned him and his wife Hannah, administrators of the estate of Luke Archer, deceased, to give supplemental security for the administration of the estate [Minutes 1804-7, 276]. On 15 January 1810 he purchased 4 acres on the south side of the Nottoway River in Southampton County for $2 dollars [DB 12:99], and he and his wife Hannah sold this land for $30 on 12 March 1823 [DB 19:164]. He was a "f.n." taxable on a horse in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1803 to 1811, listed with his wife Hannah as "f.n." planters from 1812 to 1814, living on John Whitfield's land in 1817 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 612, 682, 796, 833; 1807-21, frames 44, 66, 163, 184, 283, 311, 411, 571]. His 30 December 1819 Northampton County will was proved in March 1824 [WB 3:296]. He had two young women, 14-26 years old, in his Northampton County household in 1820, but his will mentioned only his unnamed wife and two sons. His children were

i. Newsom, born before 1776, head of a Northampton County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:212]. His father left him tools and "reading books."

ii. Kinchen, born 1790, was in the Third Northampton County Regiment in the War of 1812 with (his brother?) Collin Artis [N.C. Adjutant General, Muster Rolls of the War of 1812, 20]. By 1850 he was in household # 630 in the census for Cass County, Michigan: 60 years old, Mulatto, born in North Carolina, $400 personal estate, with Idna, 48 years old, Mulatto, born in Virginia. Their children Kinchen and Diana were born in Ohio. He and Newsome Artist were named in a Champaign County, Ohio suit for partition of James Newsom's land in 1832.

18   iii. ?Collin, born about 1783.

 

15.    Priscilla Artis, born about 1761, a "poor" child, was bound apprentice in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, on 13 June 1771, no parent named [Orders 1768-72, 420]. She was taxable in Southampton County on 2 free male tithes in 1801 [PPTL 1792-1806, frame 506]. She registered in Southampton County on 2 December 1801: age 40, Black, 5 feet 4 1/2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 220]. She registered in Petersburg on 6 September 1805: a black free Negro woman, five feet four and a half inches high, forty four years old, formerly of Southampton County & Register no. 220 [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 356]. She was the mother of

i. Matthew, born about 1782, registered in Southampton County on 12 December 1801: age 19, Black, 5 feet 9-1/4, Free born, lives with Prisa Artis his mother [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 222]. registered in Petersburg on 5 September 1805: a dark brown, near black Negro man, five feet nine inches high, twenty three years old, born free in Southampton County p. certificate of Register [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 360]. He was administrator of the estate of Nancy Artis on 18 November 1806 when the Southampton County court summoned him to give additional security [Minutes 1804-7, 236]. He was head of a Southampton County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:75]. He was a "F.N." taxable in Southampton County in Saint Luke's Parish in 1800, in Nottoway Parish in 1804 and 1805, in St. Luke's Parish from 1809 to 1811, living with his wife Polly on John Blow's land in 1813 and 1817 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 405, 717, 755; 1807-21, frames 163, 184, 311, 411, 571]. He registered again in Southampton County on 31 July 1810: age 28, Blk., 5 feet 9-1/2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 794].

ii. William, born about 1783, registered in Southampton County on 2 December 1801: age 18, Black, 5 feet 8-1/4, Free born, lives with Prisa Artis his mother [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 221]. He registered in Petersburg on 5 September 1805: a dark brown, near black Negro man, five feet eight and a half inches high, twenty two years old, born free in Southampton County per Register [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 361].

 

16.    Abraham2 Artis, born say 1765, married Elizabeth Tabour (Taborn) with the consent of her mother Judy Tabour, 11 October 1788 Greensville County, Virginia bond, Peter Pelham security, Tempy Tabour witness. He was taxable on a horse in Greensville County in 1795 and 1798 [PPTL 1782-1850, frames 185, 228]. He was a buyer in the 1788 Northampton County, North Carolina sale of the estate of Martha Lewis [Gammon, Records of Estates, Northampton County, I:70]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 2 "other free" in 1790 [NC:73] and 6 in Halifax County, North Carolina, in 1800 [NC:3]. Perhaps his children were

19   i. Willie, born about 1783.

ii. Berry, who was jailed for a minor offense by the 19 and 21 May 1834 Halifax County, North Carolina court [Minutes 1832-46].

 

17.    Jacob1 Artis, born say 1766, son of Lydia Artis, was bound apprentice in Southampton County on 10 August 1769. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in William Pope's household in 1784, in Robert Williams, Sr.'s household in 1788, charged with his own tithe from 1789 to 1800 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 551, 650, 704, 754, 868; 1792-1806, frames 72, 154, 308, 369, 404]. He died at his house on the evening of 30 July 1800 according to testimony in Southampton County court on 8 August 1800 which charged a "Mulatto man" named Allen Demmory (Demery) and a white man named James Porter with his murder. The court heard from five white witnesses and (Jacob's widow) Rebecca Artis and sent the prisoners to Suffolk for trial. On 17 August 1801 the court ordered the overseers of the poor to bind out his orphans Delila, Bowling, Jacob, Jenny, and Lotty Artis [Minutes 1799-1803, 109-10, 123, 204, 213]. He was the father of

i. Delilah Artis Roberts, born about 1794. She and her husband Henry Roberts obtained free papers in Northampton County on 30 April 1834 and registered in Logan County, Ohio, on 11 January 1839. The papers describe her as having a yellow complexion, aged about forty years, 5 feet 4 inches tall. Their children named in the papers were Darius and Ailsey T. Roberts [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 11].

ii. Bowling.

iii. Jacob, called a poor "free negro" child of Rebecca Artis when he was ordered bound out on 15 July 1805 [Minutes 1804-7].

iv. Jenny, called a poor "free negro" child of Rebecca Artis when she was ordered bound out on 15 July 1805 [Minutes 1804-7].

 

18.    Collin/ Cullen Artis, born about 1783, was in the Third Northampton County Regiment in the War of 1812 [N.C. Adjutant General, Muster Rolls of the War of 1812, 20]. His 24 April 1843 Northampton County "free papers," recorded in Ross County, Ohio, described him as "a man of colour, aged about sixty years, his wife Milly as "aged about 53 years" and named their children and grandchildren [Turpin, Register of Black, Mulatto, and Poor Persons, 33]:

i. Patsy, born about 1813, (and her children Nancy, Hamet, Angey, George, Zachariah, and Isehiah).

ii. Olif, (and son John).

iii. Milly, born about 1826.

iv. Cherry, born about 1829.

 

19.    Willie Artis, born about 1783, registered in Southampton County on 19 March 1806: age 23, 6 feet 1 inch, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 345]. He was head of a Greensville County household of 9 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:259]. He registered in Greensville County on 2 April 1827 and again on 7 February 1832: born of free parents as appears from a register of the Clerk of Southampton County, of a black complexion, about forty nine years of age, six feet 2 & 1/2 inches high, by occupation a farmer. Thena Artis, who was probably his wife, registered on 3 April 1827 and on 7 February 1832: born free, of a yellow complexion, about forty five years of age, five feet four & 1/2 inches high. She was called "Thena Artis, formerly Day" when her son Henry Day registered the same day [Register of Free Negroes, 1805-1832, nos. 158, 159, 190, 192, 195]. Thena was the mother of

i. Henry Day, registered in Greensville County on 7 February 1832: son of Thena Artis, formerly Day, born free of a dark complexion, about twenty two years of age, five feet seven inches high...by occupation a farmer [Register of Free Negroes, 1805-1832, no. 195].

ii. Earrick Artis, born about 1810, registered in Greensville County on 7 February 1832: son of Thena Artis, of a black complexion, about twenty two years of age, five feet ten & 1/2 inches high...by occupation a farmer [Register of Free Negroes, 1805-1832, no.194].

 

20.    George3 Artis, born about 1815, a carpenter, built the frame structure of the Chain Lake Missionary Baptist Church in Calvin Township, Cass County, Michigan [Lucas, History of Chain Lake Missionary Baptist Church]. He was in household no. 1594 in Cass County in 1860: George W. Artis, 45 years old, "Mulatto," carpenter, $150 real estate, $25 personal, with wife S., 34 years old. Their oldest child was born in Ohio in 1843, and their youngest was born in Michigan in 1850.

 

Other members of the Artis family in Southampton County were

i. Phebe, born say 1760, paid by the Southampton County court for the maintenance of her unnamed son on 9 March 1787 [Orders 1784-9, 262].

ii. Patience, born about 1765, registered in Southampton County on 1 August 1810: age 45, Blk., 5 feet 5-1/2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 798]. She was head of a Southampton County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [VA:86]. She was taxable on a free male tithable in Southampton County in 1801, listed with no property in 1805; she and her daughter Tabitha were living on Ann Pope's land in 1813, and she and her son Tom were taxable on John Underwood's land in 1820 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 506, 543, 795; 1807-21, frame 311, 780].

iii. Elizabeth, born say 1768, mother of Michael Artis, a "poor child" ordered bound apprentice in Southampton County to George Gurley on 11 September 1789 and ordered bound out again on 8 April 1790 [Minutes 1786-90, n.p.].

iv. Sally, born say 1768, married Jacob Freeman, 4 February 1789 Southampton County bond.

v. Edmund, born about 1774, ordered bound apprentice by the overseers of the poor of St. Luke's Parish on 11 September 1788 [Orders 1784-9, 437]. He registered in Southampton County on 12 July 1810: age 36, Blk., 5 feet 9 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 586]. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in Jonas Bryant's household from 1797 to 1799, taxable in Thomas Newsom's household in 1795, and a "free Negro" taxable in Nottoway Parish from 1802 to 1811 [PPTL 1792-1806, frames 167, 580, 717; 1807-21, frames 4, 87, 126, 209]. He married Nanny Evans, 23 February 1796 Southampton County bond. He was head of a Southampton County household of 8 "other free" in 1810 [VA:74].

vi. William, born say 1775, a 16-21 year-old taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in Nathan Bryant's household in 1792, listed in his own household in 1793 and 1800 [PPTL 1782-92, frame 812; 1792-1806, frame 45, 405].

vii. Charlotte, born say 1777, ordered bound apprentice by the overseers of the poor of St. Luke's Parish on 11 September 1788 [Orders 1784-9, 437].

viii. Dempsey, born about 1778, ordered bound out by the overseers of the poor in the upper district of St. Luke's Parish to Newit Edwards on 12 February 1789 [Orders 1784-9, 481]. He registered in Southampton County on 31 July 1810: age 32, Blk., 5 feet 8 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 789]. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1791 to 1817: a 16-21 year-old taxable in Newit Edwards' household from 1791 to 1794, a "f.n." taxable in 1805, charged with his own tax after 1800, listed with his wife Nancy on Lewis Worrell's land in 1812, listed with Nancy Bowing as "Free Negroes" in 1814, living on M. Gwaltney's land in 1817 [PPTL 1782-92, frames 815, 873; 1792-1806, frames 78, 506, 543, 612, 796, 833; 1807-21, frames 66, 163, 184, 283, 411, 571].

ix. Ann, born about 1778, registered in Southampton County on 30 July 1810: age 32, Blk., 4 feet 11 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 764].

x. ?Richard2, born say 1780, married Rebecca Banks, 30 December 1801 Southampton County bond, Evans Pope surety. He was taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, in 1788, his tax charged to Simon Everitt from 1792 to 1796, charged with his own tax in 1801, his tax charged to William Newton in 1805, charged with his own tax in 1810 and 1811 [PPTL 1782-92, frame 873; 1792-1806, frames 51, 78, 185, 506, 796; 1807-21, frames 163, 184]. He was head of a Southampton County household of 2 "other free" in 1810 [VA:64].

xi. Miriam2, born say 1780, married Aaron Norfleet, 12 March 1808 Southampton County bond, Barnes Bolling surety. Aaron registered in Southampton County on 18 September 1798: age 42, blackman, 5 feet 8 1/2 inches, set free by Jno. Norfleet, Southampton Co. Deed [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 125].

xii. Drew, born about 1783, registered in Southampton County on 27 June 1804: age 21, blk, 5 feet 5-1/2 inches high, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 309].

xiii. Phereby, born say 1784, mother of a poor child named Arthur who was ordered bound apprentice in Southampton County on 15 July 1805 [Minutes 1804-7]. Ferebe married Moses Browne, 24 February 1810 Southampton County bond, Benjamin Whitfield surety. Moses was head of a Southampton County household of 5 "other free" in 1810 [VA:66].

xiv. George2, born about 1784, registered in Southampton County on 30 July 1810: age 26, Blk., 5 feet 5-1/2 inches, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 734]. He was a 45-year-old brickmaker from Southampton County who emigrated to Liberia aboard the James Perkins in 1831 [https://www.fold3.com/image/46670315].

xv. Exum, born say 1785, taxable in St. Luke's Parish, Southampton County, from 1802 to 1806, a "f.n." listed with wife Clary in 1813 and 1814, living on John Rochell's land in 1817 [PPTL 1792-1806, frame 543, 612, 833; 1807-21, frames 283, 311, 411, 571].

xvi. Tempy3, born about 1787, registered in Southampton County on 1 August 1810: age 23, Blk., 5 feet 1 inch, free born [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1832, no. 799].

xvii. Evans, born about 1792, received one of the "Certificates Granted to Free Negroes & Mulattoes" in Sussex County on 2 November 1826: free born, light complexion, 5'10", aged 34 [Certificates Granted to Free Negroes & Mulattoes 1800-50, no. 531].

 

ASHBERRY FAMILY

1.    Martha Ashberry, born say 1740, was the servant of Gideon Patterson on 26 July 1762 when he was summoned to appear in Cumberland County, Virginia court to show cause why he detained her in service [Orders 1762-4, 3]. She was probably the mother of

i. Milly, a "Mulatto" orphan bound by the Cumberland County court to Gideon Patterson on 24 May 1762 [Orders 1758-62, 477].

 

ASHBY FAMILY

1.    Mary Ashbye, born say 1705, was a white servant listed in the York County estate of James Shields with her "Mulatto" sons Matthew and John on 21 August 1727 [OW 16, pt. 2, 509]. She was the mother of

2     i. Matthew1, born say 1723.

3     ii. John1, born say 1725.

4     iii. ?Roseanna, born say 1732.

 

2.    Matthew1 Ashby, born say 1723, was indicted for assault and battery in York County on 19 November 1759. He pled guilty and was fined 30 shillings [Judgments & Orders 1759-63, 90, 107, 113-4]. Matthew and his wife Ann registered the birth of their daughter Mary in Bruton Parish, James City and York counties, in 1764. In November 1765 his slaves Harry and John were among thirty-four slaves who were attending the "Negro School" in Williamsburg which had been established by Dr. Bray's Associates, and his free children John and Mary Ashby were among twenty-nine attending the school on 16 February 1769 [Stephenson, Notes on the Negro School in Williamsburg, 1760-1774, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (1963), Appendix no. 1, iv, citing Manuscripts of Dr. Bray's Associates, American Papers, 1735-1774, S.P.G. Archives, London]. He purchased his wife and two children from Samuel Spurr for 150 pounds and was called a "free Mulatto" on 27 November 1769 when he successfully petitioned the governor and Council of Virginia to allow him to free his wife Ann and their children John and Mary [Hillman, Executive Journals, VI:334-5]. On 25 October 1770 there was an ad in the Virginia Gazette which claimed that a slave named Sam, who had run away from Matthew Mayes of Amelia County, was being harbored by Matthew Ashby [Windley, Runaway Slave Advertisements, 1:87]. His 25 November 1769 York County will, proved 15 April 1771, named his wife Ann and their children John and Mary. He left his estate to his good friend John Blair, Esq., who was to see to the support of his wife and education of his children. However, Blair refused the executorship, so it was granted to his widow Anne [Wills & Inventories Book 22:25-6; Orders 1770-2, 229]. They were the parents of

i. ?Harry/ Henry, born say 1758, attending the school in Williamsburg in November 1765. He married Susanna Jones, 23 January 1796 York County bond. He was taxable in James City County from 1795 to 1801. Susanna Ashby was taxable in James City County on a horse in 1807 and head of a household of a "Free Person of Colour above 16 years" in 1813 [PPTL 1782-99; 1800-15].

ii. John2, born say 1760, taxable in the upper district of York County in 1782, taxable on his own tithe and a horse from 1791 to 1794, taxable on a slave and a horse in 1796, taxable on two tithes in 1812 and head of a household of 2 "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16" in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1841, frames 69, 91, 106, 147, 170, 190, 218, 227, 253, 304, 373, 384]. He was head of a York County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:870].

iii. Mary, born 24 October 1764, a "free Mulatta" [Bruton Parish Register, 26], perhaps identical to Polly Ashby who was listed in York County among the "free Negroes & mulattoes over 16" in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1841, frame 384].

 

3.    John1 Ashby, born say 1725, was a "servant man" valued at 16 pounds in the 1 October 1750 inventory of the York County estate of Thomas Cobbs [W&I 20:192]. He was married to Sarah Ashby, "Free Mulattoes," in 1765 when the birth and baptism of their children Matthew and Philemon were recorded in Bruton Parish, James City and York counties [Bruton Parish Register, 26, 32]. He paid 2 pounds, 10 shillings rent to Timson Crawley, orphan of Robert Crawley, between 1763 and 1773 [Guardians' Accounts 1736-1780, 396, 425, 485]. He was presented by the York County court on 19 November 1770 for failing to list himself as a tithable [Judgments & Orders 1770-2, 105, 337]. He died before 21 October 1776 when the York County court ordered the churchwardens of Bruton Parish to bind out his unnamed orphans and also (his son) Matt Ashby. On 15 June 1778 the court allowed (his widow) Sally Ashby, "wife of ___ Ashby" 12 pounds for the subsistence allowed wives, children and aged parents of poor soldiers serving in the Revolution. She was called the mother of a soldier when she received an allowance on 21 June 1779 and 17 July 1780 [Orders 1774-84, 127, 163, 219, 273]. Their children were

i. ?James, born say 1763, paid as a witness on 19 July 1785 in a suit against Peter Gillett in York County court [Orders 1784-7, 185], taxable in York County from 1786 to 1813, taxable on two tithables and a horse from 1809 to 1811 [PPTL, 1782-1841, frames 128, 180, 199, 218, 227, 243, 304, 337, 350, 362, 384]. He was head of a York County household of 10 "other free" in 1810 [VA:870].

ii. Matthew2, born 18 July 1765, baptized 6 October 1765, ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Bruton Parish, York County, on 21 October 1776 [Orders 1774-84, 127], a taxable "Mulatto" in Warwick County in 1789 [PPTL, p.1], taxable in York County from 1794 to 1810 [PPTL, 1782-1841, frames 199, 218, 227, 253, 274, 304, 337, 350] and head of a York County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [VA:887]. Perhaps his widow was Elizabeth Ashby who was taxable on a free male tithable in York County in 1811 [PPTL, 1782-1841, frame 362].

iii. Philemon2, born 16 September 1767, "son of John and Sarah Ashby his Wife free mulattoes."

iv. ?Richard, born about 1775, registered in York County on 15 October 1810: a dark Mulatto about 35 years of age 5 feet 8-1/4 Inches high - is a sturdy well made fellow...Born free [Free Negro Register 1798-1831, no.57]. He was head of a York County household of 11 "other free" in 1810 [VA:887]. He was taxable in York County from 1795 to 1812. He died before 1814 when his estate was taxable on 2 horses [PPTL, 1782-1841, frames 209, 235, 253, 274, 294, 337, 350, 384, 402].

v. ?Thomas, born about 1792, registered as a "free Negro" in York County on 19 September 1831: about 39 years of age, 5 feet 6-1/4 inches high, decayed front teeth, whiskers [Free Negroes Register, 1831-50, no. 305].

 

4.    Roseanna Ashby, "a mulatto wench," born say 1732, was bound apprentice to Thomas Whitworth by the churchwardens of St. John's Parish, King William County. In February 1763 she was living in Amelia County when she completed her indenture and successfully petitioned the court to release her and her children Daniel and Phil from Thomas Whitworth [Orders 1763, fols. 20, 83, 85-6]. Her children were

i. Daniel, born say 1758.

ii. Phil1, born say 1761.

 

ASHE FAMILY

Members of the Ash family, probably brothers and sisters, were living in Southside Virginia and North Carolina about 1750. They were

1     i. Thomas, born say 1730.

2     ii. Rachel1, born say 1735.

3     iii. Sarah, born say 1740.

4     iv. Nancy, born say 1742.

5     v. Moses1, born say 1745.

6     vi. Catherine, born say 1749.

 

1.    Thomas Ash, born say 1730, was taxable in Granville County in the list of Lemuel Lanier in 1750 [CR 44.701.23] and was living with his wife Abigail in Granville County in 1755 where they were taxable on two "Black" tithes [CR 44.701]. On 19 March 1759 he was sued in Granville County court by Leonard Henly Bullock for concealing a tithable [Minutes 1754-70, 55]. They may have been the parents of

7     i. Charles1, born say 1755.

 

2.    Rachel1 Ash, born say 1735, was presented by the grand jury of Isle of Wight County on 3 May 1759 for having a bastard child, but the case was dismissed on 3 Jan 1760 because she was not then residing in the county [Orders 1759-63, 3, 93]. She was living in Isle of Wight County on 4 April 1764 when her children Lazarus, Chloe and Lydia Ash were bound apprentices [Orders 1764-68, 11]. She was a "free Molletto" living in Saint Brides Parish on 18 August 1768 when the Norfolk County court ordered the churchwardens to bind out her children Peter and Judith Ash to John Pasteur [Orders 1768-71, 11]. Her children were

i. Lazarus, born say 1755, a "son of Rachel Ash" ordered bound out to Thomas Applewhite, Jr., in Isle of Wight County in 1756 [Orders 1755-57, 131].

ii. Chloe, born say 1759, "orphan of Rachel" bound apprentice in Isle of Wight County on 4 April 1764 [Orders 1764-68, 11]. She was head of an Isle of Wight County household of 3 persons in 1782 [VA:29].

iii. James2, born about 1761, orphan of Rachel" bound apprentice in Norfolk County on 4 April 1764 [Orders 1764-68, 11]. He was a soldier born in Isle of Wight County and residing there on 28 September 1780 when he enlisted in the Revolution for 1-1/2 years: age 18, black complexion, 4'9-3/4" high, a farmer by trade [Register & description of Noncommissioned officers & Privates, LVA accession no. 24296, by http://revwarapps.org/b69.pdf (p.70)]. He was head of a Nansemond County household of 5 persons in Buxton's list for 1783 [VA:57] and a "Mulatto" head of a Nansemond County household in Buxton's list for 1784 [VA:74]. He was taxable in Isle of Wight County in 1784 [PPTL 1782-1810, frame 55]. And in 1784 he was called James Ash of Isle of Wight County when he petitioned the Virginia Legislature for payment due him for eighteen months service as a Continental soldier in one of the Isle of Wight County divisions [Virginia State Library Legislative Petitions, 23 November 1784]. He registered in Petersburg on 20 August 1794: a dark brown Mulatto Man, five feet high, thirty three years old, born free & raised in Isle of Wight County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 71]. He sued Lemuel Lawrence in the Hustings Court of Petersburg on 3 March 1794 for trespass, assault and battery [Orders 1791-7, 113, 119, 134].

iv. Lydia, born say 1763, "a Molatto the Child of Rachell Ash" ordered bound apprentice by the churchwardens of Newport Parish in Isle of Wight County on 5 July 1764 [Orders 1764-68, 77].

v. Peter2, born say 1765, ordered bound apprentice to John Pasteur in Norfolk County on 18 August 1768 [Orders 1768-71, 11].

vi. Judith, born say 1767, ordered bound apprentice to John Pasteur in Norfolk County on 18 August 1768 [Orders 1768-71, 11].

vii. ?Sam, born say 1771, a "F.N." taxable in Isle of Wight County in 1792 and from 1795 to 1802 [PPTL 1782-1810, frame 240, 360, 374, 403, 442, 538, 556].

viii. ?Henry, born say 1775, a "F.N." taxable in Isle of Wight County from 1798 to 1805: taxable on a slave in 1798 and 1799, 2 slaves in 1801 and 1802, just his own tithe in 1803 and 1804 [PPTL 1791-1828, frames 427, 472, 521, 575, 595, 651, 671].

 

3.    Sarah Ash, born say 1740, was living in Isle of Wight County, Virginia, on 2 June 1763 when the court ordered her children Sandy, James and Peter Ash bound out as apprentices [Orders 1759-63, 441]. She was living in Norfolk County two years later on 15 August 1765 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Portsmouth Parish to bind out her "free Negro" sons Sandy and James Ash to Solomon Deans [Orders 1763-65, 254]. On 1 April 1773 she complained to the Isle of Wight County court that William Bagnal was misusing her son Peter Ash who was bound apprentice to Bagnal. The court ordered him bound out to someone else. On 7 August 1777 and 5 March 1779 she complained to the Isle of Wight County court against Sharp Reynolds. This or another case brought by her against Reynolds was still pending on 1 May 1783 [Orders 1772-80, 110, 396, 427, 463; 1780-3, 201]. She was head of an Isle of Wight County household of 7 persons in 1782 [VA:29], 5 "other free" in Halifax County, North Carolina, in 1800 [NC:286], and 4 in 1810 [NC:4]. Her children were

i. Sandy, born say 1758, bound an apprentice to Solomon Deans in Norfolk County on 15 August 1765 [Orders 1763-65, 254].

8     ii. James1, born say 1760.

iii. Peter1, born say 1762, a "Molatto Child of Sarah Ash" ordered bound apprentice by the churchwardens of Newport Parish in Isle of Wight County on 2 June 1763 and ordered bound out again on 1 April 1773 [Orders 1759-63, 441; 1772-80, 110].

9     iv. Jesse1, born say 1763.

v. ?Simon, born say 1767, a "poor free Negro" (no parent named) ordered bound apprentice in Isle of Wight County on 2 March 1775 [Orders 1772-80, 322], a "mulatto" head of a Nansemond County household in 1784 [VA:74], a "free Negro or Mulatto" over the age of 45 years in the tax list for the lower parish of Nansemond County in Knott's Neck in 1815 [PPTL, 1815-1837, frame 10]. He was head of a Nansemond County household of 3 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:87]. He was apparently the father of James Ash "(of Simon)" who was one of the "Free Negroes of Suffolk Parish" who was taxable at "B.C." in Nansemond County in 1816 [PPTL, 1815-1837, frame 51].

vi. Charles2, born say 1769, a "poor mulatto" orphan of Sarah Ash, bound apprentice in Isle of Wight County on 7 October 1779 [Orders 1772-80, 490]. He was a "F.N." taxable in Isle of Wight County from 1792 to 1810 [PPTL 1782-1810, frames 240, 270, 330, 374, 403, 442, 538, 556, 615, 633, 691, 732, 750, 808, 826].

vii. ?Kitt/ Christopher, born say 1772, head of a Halifax County, North Carolina household of 5 "other free" in 1800 [NC:286] and 7 in 1810 [NC:4].

viii. ?Mourning, born about 1778, registered in Petersburg on 18 August 1800: a strait made, brown Mulatto woman, five feet six inches high, twenty two years old, long bushy hair, born free & raised in Isle of Wight County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 191].

ix. ?Charity, born about 1779, registered in Petersburg on 6 May 1809: a dark brown negro woman, five feet, thirty years old, born free & raised in Isle of Wight County p. Registry [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 464].

 

4.    Nancy Ash, born say 1742, was called "an Indian and Free born" by her daughter Jenny in February 1785 when Jenny petitioned the Bertie County court saying that she and her two children were being held in slavery by John Gardner. Gardner asserted that Jenny was a "Mustee, and a slave" who he received by the will of Samuel Cotton at the age of about ten years and that she had been in his possession for about fourteen years. The court called her "Jenny Ash, a Mulatto Woman" when it ordered Gardner to appear in court to answer her petition [Byrd, In Full Force and Virtue, 1-2]. Nancy was the mother of

10   i. Jenny1, born about 1761.

ii. ?Rachel2, born say 1762, married James Kemer (Keemer), both of Southampton County, on 16 August 1781, David Barrow minister [Judgment Papers 1777-83, frame 781].

iii. Jesse2, born in December 1776, registered in Petersburg on 26 January 1796: a Black Negro Lad, five feet six and a half inches high, short knotty hair (and by the affidavit of Jonathan Curtis is son of Nancy Ash a Free woman and was born Free in the County of Princess Anne and nineteen years old Dec. last [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 107].

 

5.    Moses1 Ash, born say 1745, was a "Mulatto" head of a Nansemond County household in 1784 [VA:74]. His widow may have been Suckey Ash, a "Free Negro" taxable on 2 horses in Nansemond County in 1815 [PPTL, 1815-1837, frame 10]. She was head of a Nansemond County household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 [VA:81B]. Their children may have been

i. Moses2, born about 1771, a nine-year-old boy bound to Jethro Sumner in Warren County, North Carolina, in September 1780 to learn to read and write and husbandry [Minutes 1780-3, 51]. He was called Moses Ash Bowser on his Warren County indenture [WB 3:155].

ii. Nathaniel, registered in Norfolk County on 10 April 1794: appeared Wright Carn__ and made oath that Nathaniel Ash a Black Man and Nancy Elliott, Betsey Elliott, Sarah Elliott, Dinah Elliott, and Rachel Elliott was all born free in this county [Ash, Nathaniel: Free Negro Certificate, 1794, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA]. He was taxable in Norfolk County from 1793 to 1817: a "free Negro" fisherman on Western Branch in 1801, counted with Jim Ash in Portsmouth as "B.M." (Black Men) in 1815 [PPTL, 1791-1812, frames 77, 132, 294, 384, 460, 554, 641, 720; 1813-24, frames 94, 121, 263]. He, a "free person of colour," married Dinah Elliott, "free person of colour," 9 June 1818 Norfolk County bond [Marriage Bonds, 1817-20, 26].

iii. Oliver, born say 1790, a 16-45-year-old "Free Negro" taxable at Knott's Neck in Nansemond County in 1815 and taxable in Suffolk Parish in 1816 [PPTL, 1815-1837, frames 10, 51].

iv. James4, born say 1792, taxable in Isle of Wight County in 1809 and 1810 [PPTL 1782-1810, frames 790, 845]. He may have been the James Ash, "a free man of colour," who married Priscilla Hall, "a free woman of colour," 31 December 1814 Norfolk County bond, Nathan Mathews security. He was a "Free Negro" taxable at Knott's Neck in Nansemond County in 1815 and 1816 [PPTL, 1815-1837, frames 10, 51].

 

6.    Catherine Ash, born say 1746, was indicted by the Hustings Court of Petersburg on 3 May 1790 for retailing spirits without a license [Orders 1784-91, 316, 342]. She may have been the mother of

i. Patty, born about 1762, registered in Petersburg on 14 August 1800, a light brown Mulatto woman, five feet one inches high, thirty eight years old, thin made with thick bushy hair, born free & raised in Nansemond County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 165].

ii. William, born about 1778, registered in Petersburg on 23 June 1810: a yellow brown Mulatto man, five feet three 3/4 inches high, thirty two years old, born free in Nansemond County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 619]. He was called Billey Ash in 1810 when he was head of a Petersburg household of 3 slaves (probably should have been entered in the "other free" column) [VA:117b]. He may have been the Bill Ash who was a "Free Negro" taxable on a head of cattle and 2 horses at Knott's Neck in Nansemond County in 1815. He registered in York County on 20 January 1823: a yellow brown Mulatto about 44 or 45 years of age 5 feet 3-3/4 Inches high - a little bald on top of his head, bushy hair with whiskers...some small freckles over his face...has the appearance of a French Negro or Mulo on first view - Born free as appears by Register of his freedom signed by J. Grammer, Clk of Hustings Ct. of Petersburg on 23 June 1810, no. 619 [Register of Free Negroes 1798-1831, no.203].

iii. Levina, born about 1779, registered in Petersburg on 14 August 1800: a light brown Mulatto woman, five feet three and a half inches high, twenty one, with short bushy hair, born free & raised in Nansemond County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 162]. She was head of a Petersburg household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:121b]. She married Griffin Scott, 21 June 1817 Petersburg Hustings Court marriage. Her daughters Betsy Ash (born about 1795) and Rosena Ash (born about 1806) registered on 2 March 1820 [Register of Free Negroes 1819-33, nos. 1026-7].

 

7.    Charles1 Ash, born say 1755, was living in Caswell County prior to 18 May 1778 when a land entry mentioned his improvements sold to William Noyal Norsworthy [Pruitt, Land Entries: Caswell County, 15]. He was counted in Halifax County, North Carolina, in the state census of 1786 in District 13 with 7 free males and 3 free females in his household. He was head of a Halifax County household of 11 "other free" in 1790 [NC:64], 8 in 1800 [NC:286], and 9 in 1810 [NC:2]. His child may have been

i. Levi, born 1776-94, head of a Halifax County household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 and 10 in 1830.

 

8.    James1 Ashe, born say 1760, son of Sarah Ash, was ordered bound an apprentice to Solomon Deans in Norfolk County on 15 August 1765 [Orders 1763-65, 254]. He was head of a Bertie County household of 6 "other free" and a white woman in 1790 [NC:11], 4 "other free" in Halifax in 1800 [NC:3], and 4 "free colored" in Edgecombe County in 1820 [NC:123]. He was in the First Company detached from the Halifax County, North Carolina Regiment in the War of 1812, listed with Halvin Ash (his son? Elvin) [N.C. Adjutant General, Muster Rolls of the War of 1812, 19]. Perhaps his children were

i. Elvin, born before 1776, head of a Halifax County household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [NC:3] and 1 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. James3, born say 1780, head of a Halifax County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:4].

iii. Henry, born 1776-94, a "Negro" head of a Guilford County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830. He purchased his wife America in 1802 from Milla Clarke, the next year his wife had a daughter Jemima, and in 1804 he petitioned in Guilford County for permission to emancipate his family [Schweninger, Race, Slavery, and Free Blacks, Series 1, 73].

 

9.    Jesse1 Ash, born say 1763, a "mulato bastard child of Sarah," was bound apprentice in Isle of Wight County on 4 December 1766 and was "a free Mulatto" (no parent named) bound apprentice on 4 March 1773 [Orders 1764-68, 328; 1772-80, 89]. He was taxable in Nottoway Parish, Southampton County, in the household of John Williams in 1784 and in his own household in 1786 [PPTL 1782-92, frame 554, 584]. The 4 March 1794 Northampton County, North Carolina court charged him with begetting a bastard child by Mary Scott [Minutes 1792-96, 103]. He was head of a Northampton County household of 3 "other free" in 1800 [NC:424], 4 in 1810 [NC:710], 9 "free colored" in 1820 [NC:212], and 9 in 1830. His wife may have been Mary Ashe who was mentioned in the 2 January 1807 Northampton County will of Moses Byrd [WB 2:362]. One of his children may have been

i. Ballus, born 1776-94, head of a Northampton County household of 4 "other free" in 1810 [NC:710] and 8 "free colored" in 1820.

 

10.    Jenny1 Ashe, born about 1761, was a "Mulatto woman" living in Bertie County in February 1785 when the court ordered John Gardner, Sr., to bring her to the next court and give bond not to convey her or any of her children out of the state so as to prevent their attendance in court [Haun, Bertie County Court Minutes, V:522-3]. Perhaps it was her children who were bound apprentices in Bertie County as follows:

i. Nancy2, born about 1787, a nine-year-old bound an apprentice in Bertie County on 14 November 1796.

ii. Elizabeth, born about 1789, bound to Frederick Lawrence on 13 August 1798.

iii. Patsy, born about 1790, bound to Edmond Dunston on 14 November 1796 [NCGSJ XV:167].

iv. Isom, born about 1794, bound to Edmond Dunston as an apprentice farmer on 16 May 1807.

v. Abner, born about 1796, bound to Edmond Dunston as an apprentice farmer on 16 May 1807 [NCGSJ XVI:153].

vi. Theophilus, born 1801, bound to Amos Rayner as an apprentice cooper on 9 February 1807 [NCGSJ XVI:154].

vii. Jenny2, born 1806, a four-year-old "orphan of colour" bound to James Warren on 14 November 1810 [NCGSJ XVII:42].

 

ASHTON/ ASTEN FAMILY

The Asthton family may have descended from a slave of Burdett Ashton and a free member of the Lucas family. Burdett and Richard Lucast were taxable in the lower district of Westmoreland County from 1795 to 1798. Burdett was called Burdett A. Lucas in 1797 and Richard was called Richard A. Locust in 1798. They were called Burdett and Richard Ashton in the tax lists from 1799 to 1815, and Burdett was again called Lucus in the 1810 Westmoreland County census. They were probably related to the slaves who were taxable in the Westmoreland County estate of Burdett Ashton in 1787 [PPTL, 1782-1815, frames 314, 433, 461, 476]. Members of the Ashton family were

1     i. Jemima, born say 1760.

2     ii. Lawrence, born say 1765.

iii. Sally, born say 1768, living in Westmoreland County on 26 March 1793 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Cople Parish to bind out her children but rescinded the order the following day [Orders 1790-5, 236, 239, 253].

iv. Burdett, a "free Mulatto" farmer living on James Kelly's land in Westmoreland County in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:41], called Burditt Lucus when he was head of a Westmoreland County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 [VA:777].

3     v. Winny, born about 1776.

4     vi. Richard, born say 1777.

vii. Peggy, born say 1785, married Edmond Tate, 12 December 1806 Westmoreland County bond, Joseph Tate security.

viii. William, a "free Negro" farmer living on Johnson Wright's land in Westmoreland County in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:45].

ix. Jacob, head of a Westmoreland County household of 6 "other free" in 1810.

x. Delpha, head of a Westmoreland County household of 6 "free colored" in 1830. She registered in Westmoreland County in September 1831: a black woman, 5'1-1/2" high, about 33 years of age, born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1828-1849, no.109].

xi. Susan, born about 1797, head of a Westmoreland County household of 5 "free colored" in 1830. She registered in Westmoreland County in May 1842: bright Mulatto, 5 feet 7-1/2 inches high, about 45 years old, free born [Register of Free Negroes, 1828-1849, no.339].

 

1.    Jemima Ashton, born say 1760, was a "free Mulatto" farmer living on James Kelley's land with children Blane, Ludwell, Betsey, Meredith and Kelsick Ashton in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:41]. She was head of a Westmoreland County household of 5 "other free" in 1810. She was the mother of

i. Blain, born about 1787, registered in Westmoreland County in September 1821: a Black Boy about 34 years of age, five feet eleven inches high, son of Mima Asten who was free born [Free Negro Register, 1819-1826, p.8]. He was head of a Westmoreland County household of 8 "free colored" in 1830.

ii. Ludwell, head of a Westmoreland County household of 4 "free colored" in 1830.

iii. Betsey, born about 1788, registered in Westmoreland County in October 1831: a mulatto woman, 5'6" high, about 43 years of age, born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1828-1849, no. 120].

iv. Meredith, head of a Westmoreland County household of 5 "free colored" in 1830.

v. Kelsick, registered in Westmoreland County in September 1821: a Black Boy about five feet eleven inches high, son of Mima Ashton who was free born [Free Negro Register, 1819-1826, p.7].

 

2.    Lawrence1 Ashton, born say 1765, married Elizabeth Scott, 14 April 1788 Fairfax County bond and 14 April 1788 Fauquier County bond. He was taxable in the lower district of Westmoreland County from 1794 to 1815: called Lawrence Locust/ Lucas from 1796 to 1798, counted in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1815, frames 406, 447, 461, 476, 562, 593, 642, 765, 831]. He and Elizabeth Ashton were counted as "free Mulattoes" living on James Kelley's land in Westmoreland County in 1801 with children Rodham, Fanney, John, Hulley and Lotty [Virginia Genealogist 31:40]. He was head of a Westmoreland County household of 9 "other free" in 1810 [VA:766] and 6 "free colored" in 1830. They were apparently the parents of

i. Rodham, born about 1796, head of a Westmoreland County household of 7 "free colored" in 1830. He registered in Westmoreland County on 28 September 1835: a Mulatto man about 39 years old, 5 feet 11" high, black eyes, Born free [Register of Free Negroes, 1828-1849, p.25, no.219].

ii. Fanny.

iii. John.

iv. Hulley.

v. Lotty, married Samuel Day, 7 January 1818 Westmoreland County bond, Samuel Tate security.

 

3.    Winny Ashton, born about 1776, was a "free Mulatto" farmer living on William Ball's land in Westmoreland County with children Lawrence, Fanny, Mealey, Meteldea and Barbary Ashton in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:41]. She was head of a Westmoreland County household of 6 "other free" in 1810 (called Winney Asten, Sen.). She registered in Westmoreland County in May 1832: a black woman, 5 feet high about 56 years of age, free born [Register of Free Negroes, 1828-1849, p.20, no.177]. She was probably the mother of

i. Lawrence2.

ii. Fanny.

iii. Mealey.

iv. Meteldea/ Matilda, a "FN" above the age of sixteen when she was listed in Westmoreland County in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1815].

v. Barbary.

 

4.    Richard Ashton, born say 1777, was taxable in the lower district of Westmoreland County from 1795 to 1814: called Richard Lucust in 1795 and 1796, Richard A. Locust in 1797, counted in the list of "free Negroes & Mulattoes" in 1813 [PPTL, 1782-1815, frames 433, 461, 476, 539, 642, 765, 800]. He married Jenny Lawrence, 23 December 1797 Westmoreland County bond. He and his wife Jenney were "free Mulattoes" living on Murphey's land in Westmoreland County with child Fleet Ashton in 1801 [Virginia Genealogist 31:40] and he was head of a Westmoreland County household of 3 "free colored" in 1830. They were the parents of

i. Fleet, born say 1799.

 

ASHWORTH FAMILY

1.    James Ashworth, born say 1740, was in Captain James Leslie's Company of South Carolina Militia in the expedition against the Cherokees in 1759 [Clark, Colonial Soldiers of the South, 905]. He was described as a "tall, lusty man, of a swarthy complexion, and short black hair" in an ad placed in the South Carolina Gazette of 22 December 1766 which stated that he and Edward Gibson "(a mulatto)" head escaped from the jail in Charleston on 8 December 1766. A similar ad was placed in the 15 June 1767 issue of the Gazette which stated that they escaped on 13 May 1767 [South Carolina Gazette on http://www.accessible.com]. He lived in the "Back Country" of South Carolina in the 1760s [Brown, South Carolina Regulators, 31]. He was head of an Opelousas, Louisiana household of 11 "other free" in 1810 and 6 "free colored" in St. Landry Parish in 1820 [LA:306, 101]. He married Keziah Dial according to the Opelousas marriage licenses of his children. James and Keziah were the parents of

i. Jesse, born say 1785, "of South Carolina," son of James Ashworth, Sr., and Keziah Dial, married Sarah Perkins, daughter of Joshua Perkins and Mary Mixon, on 3 October 1810 in Opelousas [Opelousas license nos.14, 17]. Jesse was head of a St. Landry Parish household of 7 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:101]. Sarah Ashworth was a fifty-nine-year-old "Mulatto" counted in the 1850 Calcaisieu Parish, Louisiana census.

ii. Polly, born say 1792, daughter of James Ashworth and Keziah Dial of South Carolina, married George Perkins, by 4 December 1810 Opelousas license. George was head of a St. Landry Parish household of 5 "free colored" in 1820 and 10 in 1830 [LA:107, 27].

iii. James, born say 1789, son of James and Keziah Ashworth, married Mary Perkins, daughter of Joshua and Mary Perkins, on 23 September 1811 in St. Landry's Parish, Louisiana [Opelousas license no.13]. He was head of a St. Landry Parish household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:101] and 5 in 1830 [LA:26].

2     iv. Moses, born say 1791.

v. Aaron, son of James Ashworth and Keziah Dial, married Mary Bunch 16 September 1829 Opelousas marriage [License no. 58].

 

2.    Moses Ashworth, born say 1791, "of South Carolina," married Anna Bunch by 23 November 1821 Opelousas license [License no. 58]. He was head of a St. Landry Parish household of 6 "free colored" in 1830 [LA:26]. In 1840 the brothers Joshua, Aaron, David and William Ashworth ("people of color") had been living in Jefferson County, Texas, for two years when they petitioned for exemption from the law which required them to emigrate. And in 1842 the Board of Land Commissioners and other citizens of Jefferson County requested that "free people of color" William, Abner and Aaron Ashworth, Elisha and Eliza Thomas, heirs of Moses Ashworth, have the right to claim the land they had homesteaded [Schweninger, Race, Slavery, and Free Blacks, Series 1, 216-7, 219-20]. He may have been the father of

i. Joshua.

ii. Aaron.

iii. David.

iv. William.

v. Abner.

vi. Eliza, married Elisha Thomas.

 

ATKINS FAMILY

Members of the Atkins family were

i. James, a "molater boy" valued at 4 pounds in the 24 June 1734 inventory of the Essex County estate of Mary Nall [WB 5 (1731-1735): 285-7].

1     ii. John, born about 1786.

iii. Milly, head of an Essex County household of 3 "other free" in 1810 [VA:208].

iv. Frank, head of a Free Town, Brunswick County, Virginia household of 1 "other free" in 1810 [VA:770].

v. Betsy, born about 1791, registered in Charles City County on 16 September 1824: a bright mulatto woman aged 33 years, born free in this county [Minutes 1823-9, 77].

 

1.    John Atkins, born about 1786, received 9 pounds for (his wife) Eliza Atkins as her share of the Charles City County estate of her father Edward Bradby in 1802 [WB 1:591]. He was a 65-year old shoemaker in the list of free Negroes in Charles City county in 1851 [List of free negroes over 12 years of age, 1851, African American Narrative Digital Collection, LVA]. He was the father of

i. Edward, born 16 December 1812, obtained a certificate of freedom in Charles City County on 15 September 1831: son of John Atkins, eighteen years old the 16th December last, bright mulatto, born free in this county [Minutes 1830-7, 75].

 

ATKINSON FAMILY

1.    Easter Atkinson, born say 1725, was a resident of Fauquier County and the daughter of a white woman according to testimony by John Taliaferro in King George County on 30 May 1801. She bound her daughter Mildred to Francis Tyler [Fredericksburg City Certificates and Registry of Free Negroes, 1790-1862, 52]. She was the mother of

i. Mildred, born say 1745, completed her time of servitude to Francis Tyler of Caroline County about 1776 and then worked for Colonel John Thornton as an assistant shopkeeper. She registered in Fredericksburg: the bearer a Mulatto Woman named Mildred Atkinson who served her time to a certain Frances Tyler of the County of Caroline, then in the imploy of my Father in law the late Colo. John Thornton as an assistant storekeeper. Milly's time of servitude expired about the year 1776 since which I have seen her in different parts of the Country particularly in the City of Richmond where she resided several years and from information I received from several respectable characters I have reason to believe she has at all times conducted herself as an honest industrious woman. Her mother's name was Easter Atkinson a Resident of Fauquier who I have been told was the daughter of a white woman. 30 May 1801. John Taliaferro. King George County.

I do hereby certify that I knew Easter Atkinson the mother of Mildred Atkinson a Molatto woman and always understood she was free born. That she bound Mildred to Mrs. Ann Tyler the wife of Mr. Francis Tyler, the sd Mildred served him part of the time and as I married a daughter of Mr. Tyler's she was given to me or sent to live with me, perhaps two or three years. Mrs. Tyler gave Mildred's indentures up to her and payed her freedom dues. Joseph Allen. 3 June 1801.

Essex County. The bearer hereof Mildred Atkinson a Mulattoe woman was born free and now resides at Tappahannock in Essex. 19th May 1802.

I Betty Talliaferro of Spotsylvania County do certify that the bearer Milly Atkinson served her time with Francis Tyler and his wife was born a free woman. 19 May 1807 [Fredericksburg City Certificates and Registry of Free Negroes, 1790-1862, 52, 53, 123].

 

ALDEN/ AULDEN FAMILY

1.    Mary Aulden, born about 1741, was living in Chesterfield County on 7 May 1779 when the court ordered the churchwardens of Dale Parish to bind out her daughter Nancy. She may have been the mother of Polly, Elizabeth, Hannah, Matthew and William Auldham who were ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Dale Parish on 1 October 1779. On 2 August 1782 apprentices Elizabeth, Hannah and Martha Aldens complained to the court about their master William Bragg. Elizabeth Alden was discharged from his service on 6 September 1782. William Aldom was ordered bound out by the churchwardens of Dale Parish on 3 October 1783 [Orders 1774-84, 227, 246, 369, 372, 418]. Mary Alden registered in Petersburg on 18 August 1794: a light brown stout Mulatto woman, five feet two inches high, about fifty three years old, free born & raised in Chesterfield County [Register of Free Negroes 1794-1819, no. 26]. She was the mother of

i. ?Thomas, charged in Chesterfield County court on 3 October 1783 with breaking and entering the house of Susanna Burton and stealing a bed and furniture [Orders 1774-84, 484].

ii. Nancy, born before 7 May 1779.

iii. ?Mary Alden, apprenticed to Frederick Traylor in May 1782 when he complained about her to the court and agreed that she should be bound by the churchwardens of Dale Parish to someone else [Orders 1774-84, 352].

 

AVERY FAMILY

1.    Ann Yoen, born say 1730, was living in Fairfax County on 18 October 1748 when the court ordered her "mulatto" son Anthony bound to John Gladin. The churchwardens bound him to John and Frances Gladin [Minutes of the Vestry, Truro Parish, 1732-1785, page 62 of 278; http://www.pohick.org/vestrybook.html]. Anthony Avery was a "Mulatto boy" listed in the 26 December 1749 Fairfax County, Virginia estate of John Gladin [WB 1752-67, 3-5]. He may have been the ancestor of the Avery family of South Carolina and Louisiana:

i. Joseph Ivery, born say 1770, head of a Greenville County, South Carolina household of 6 "other free" in 1800 (counted next to William Sweat) [SC:31].

ii. Amos, born before 1776, married Sarah Sweat, 25 January 1819 Wilkinson County, Mississippi bond [Book B:137]. He was head of a St. Landry Parish, Louisiana household of 6 "free colored" in 1820 [LA:107]. He may have been identical to Amos Ivey who was head of a Marlboro District, South Carolina household of 7 "other free" in 1800 [SC:54a].

 

Mecklenburg County, Virginia

1.    Dicy Avery, born say 1770, was head of a Mecklenburg County household of a white woman over the age of forty-five in 1820 [VA:148b]. She was the mother of an illegitimate child named Henry Avory who was bound apprentice by the Mecklenburg County, Virginia court to Dudley Haile, blacksmith, on 12 December 1803 [Orders 1803-5, 85]. She was the mother of

i. Henry, born about 1790, registered as a free Negro in Mecklenburg County, Virginia, on 28 October 1826: a free Mulattoe about thirty six years old...born of a free Woman in this County [Register, p.21, no.17]. On 21 November 1828 he purchased 125 acres in Mecklenburg County adjoining the lands of William Stewart, deceased, from Joseph Stewart [DB 23:512].

 

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