Chapter 4

Beverly Brown

Beverly BROWN was born about 1779, probably in Northampton Co., N.C. The name of Beverly's first wife is not known, but she may have been a white woman if the claim of Beverly's grandson that he was less than one-eighth Negro is true. Beverly probably married her about 1804 in Northampton Co., N.C., although there is no marriage record in that county for Beverly BROWN. Another hypothesis is that she was not white and that her maiden name was TURNER, as they named their first child Turner BROWN. Simon TURNER was the head of a family of free African Americans in Northampton County in the 1800, 1810 and 1820 censuses there. The family connection of the TURNERs to Beverly BROWN's wife is only speculative.

Beverly was on the 1810 census of Northampton Co., N.C., with six free persons in his household. Also on the census, living nearby, was Mary BROWN, with six free persons of color. Beverly was a blacksmith, as on 7 Jun 1812, the court bound John DUNGILL and Fanny DUNGILL to him to learn the trades of blacksmith and spinster. Fanny DUNGILL may be the same as the person by that name who married on 10 Feb 1824, in Greensville Co., Va., Daniel WATKINS. Daniel registered as a free person of color on 29 Apr 1817, in Greensville County. He said he was born free, of a black complexion, 19 years old on 28 May 1817, measured 5 feet 9 3/4 inches tall in his shoes and was a planter. Paul HEINEGG believes Daniel is probably the son of Robert and Nancy (JONES) WATKINS. Robert WATKINS was registered as a free Negro in Greensville County on 1 Sep 1824. He was described as of a yellow complexion, supposed to be 54 years old, 5 feet 9 1/4 inches in his shoes, and a farmer. He married Nancy JONES, the daughter of Thomas and Rebecca JONES, on 10 Feb 1796, in Greensville Co., Va., with Abraham ARTIS as bondsman.

The Ancestors of Beverly BROWN

The identity of Beverly's parents is not known with any certainty, but he is thought to have been a son of Robert BROWN. He may have been descended from Francis BROWN, who was a "black taxable" in the 1758 and 1759 tax lists of Bertie Co., N.C. Francis lived in the part of Bertie County which became Hertford County. Paul HEINEGG's book, Free African Americans of North Carolina and Virginia, lists the following four individuals as possible children of Francis BROWN:

1. John BROWN was born about 1753, and patented 260 acres in Northampton County on 29 Oct 1782. He is on the 1790 census of Northampton Co., N.C., with five other free persons of color in his household (page 73).

2. Robert BROWN was born about 1755 and died before 1810. He lived in Northampton Co., N.C., and is on the 1790 census with seven free persons of color in his household (page 72) and on the 1800 census with three other persons of color in his household. His widow is thought to have been Mary BROWN, who is on the 1810 census of Northampton County. On 3 Mar 1818, the court ordered her to give reasons why her children, Aaron BROWN and Allen BROWN, should not be bound out as apprentices.

3. Beverly BROWN was born about 1760, and married Hannah PARHAM on 20 Nov 1785, in Greensville Co., Va. (Greensville County, Va., borders Northampton Co., N.C., to the north.) HEINEGG believes the PARHAMs were probably former slaves of the white PARHAM family of Sussex Co., Va. This was perhaps the same Beverly BROWN who was declared an insolvent debtor by the court in Halifax County on 15 Aug 1842. There are two marriages for Beverly BROWN in Halifax Co., N.C., on 15 Aug 1828, to Sarah DOYLE and on 21 Apr 1830, to Mary Ann JORDAN.

4. William BROWN was born before 1776. He is on the 1820 census of Hertford Co., N.C., with nine other free persons of color. His will was proven in court in February 1849 and Daniel VALENTINE was appointed executor. William's widow was Margaret BROWN and his children were Isaac BROWN, Winney BROWN, Rebecca BROWN, Tyley BROWN, Armesia BROWN, Jeremiah BROWN and Allen BROWN.


Beverly BROWN in Tennessee and Kentucky

About 1817, Beverly BROWN left North Carolina and moved his family to Stewart Co., Tenn. He appears on the 1820 census there as a free person of colour (page 113). In Tennessee, Beverly BROWN married on 27 Mar 1823, in Giles County, Adaline ABERNATHY. Adaline was a white woman, born about 1808 in Virginia, the daughter of James and Frances M. JENNINGS ABERNATHY, who moved from Virginia to Giles Co., Tenn., according to The Robert Abernethy Family by Arvord M. ABERNETHY. Adaline does not appear in any census records in Illinois and is not named as the widow in Beverly's probate file. She probably died before he moved to Illinois in 1829 and did not have any children.

Beverly lived for a few years before coming to Illinois in Calloway Co., Ky., which bordered Stewart Co., Tenn., to the west. The situation for free African Americans in Kentucky during the 1820s must have been a frustrating one for Beverly BROWN and his family. The American Colonization Society was active in that state. It was organized in 1816 with the objective of recruiting free blacks to leave America. In 1822, it established the African colony of Liberia and encouraged free blacks to settle there. Most free blacks opposed the scheme because they believed that its promoters were primarily interested in removing the threat posed to the institution of slavery by the presence of free blacks. They were also repelled by the society's racist arguments, which characterized them as an inferior, degraded class that should be removed from the United States. Free African Americans, like Frederick DOUGLASS spoke against the Society and said, "We intend to plant our own trees on American soil, and to repose in the shade thereof."

In 1827, the Kentucky General Assembly passed a resolution officially endorsing the colonization of free African Americans to Liberia. Henry CLAY, the "Great Compromiser" from Kentucky, in addressing the American Colonization Society in 1829 said,

Of all the descriptions of our population, and of either portion of the African race, the free people of colour are by far, as a class the most corrupt, depraved and abandoned...They are not slaves, and yet they are not free. The laws it is true, proclaim them free; but prejudices more powerful than any law, deny them the privileges of freemen. They occupy a middle station between the free white population of the United States, and the tendency of their habits is to corrupt both.

The Kentucky Colonization Society declared its purpose was to relieve Kentucky "from the serious inconvenience resulting from the existence among us, of a rapidly increasing number of free persons of colour, who are not subject to the restraints of slavery."

In 1829, Beverly BROWN moved his family to Illinois, probably traveling with the white family of John and Hannah KITTS BITTLE. Perhaps Beverly had contact with the free black family of Arthur and Patience ALLEN, who were also originally from Northampton Co., N.C., and had lived in Illinois for one year. There may also have been a family relationship between the BROWNs and ALLENs in North Carolina. In Union County, however, there seems to have been little interaction, if any, between the BROWN and ALLEN families and Beverly settled in the northern part of the county a few miles north of what is now Alto Pass, while the ALLENs lived in the western part of Union County, about 20 miles away.

Beverly BROWN in Illinois

The road traveled to Illinois from Kentucky is unknown, but Beverly may have brought his family to Shawneetown and then across southern Illinois to Union County. If he traveled by wagon, it is estimated that one pulled by oxen could only travel half a mile an hour. Another route may have been up the Mississippi River to Willard's Landing and then across land to Jonesboro.

Beverly first appears on the 1830 census of Union County as a free person of color, age 36-55. Living in his household were two males ages10-24 (Addison and Robert) and two females (Manerva and Louisa) 10-24, all free persons of color. Beverly's household in the 1835 state census of Union County had not changed and still consisted of three males and two females.

The attitude of most Illinoisans toward free blacks was not any better than that of its southern neighbors in Kentucky. The Illinois branch of the American Colonization Society reported in the Illinois Advocate on 19 Jan 1833, a few years after the BROWNs settled there,

Happily for us, our civil institutions coinciding with public sentiments, have in great measure excluded from our county, that class of population who form the immediate objects of this branch of christian benevolence--the free people of color...Free blacks are not so numerous to become burthemsome to us-- nor considered of sufficient importance to be made special objects of oppression. Few in number and harmless in character, their situation attracts, in our happily and plentiful country, but little notice and less sympathy.

On 30 Mar 1819, the Illinois state legislature approved a law which stated that "no black or mulatto person shall be permitted to settle or reside in this state, unless he or she shall first produce a certificate, signed by some judge or clerk of some court in the United States, of his or her actual freedom; ....on producing the same to the clerk of the circuit court of the county in which he shall intend to settle, it shall be the duty of such clerk to make an entry thereof, and endorse a certificate on the original certificate stating the time the same was entered in his office, and the name and description of the person producing the same, after which it shall be lawful for such free negro or mulatto to reside in this state." A mulatto was defined as any multiracial person with one or more Negro grandparent. The law also required that a free black give the names, description and ages of his family and have that certified. Free Negroes and mulattoes who resided in Illinois before the law went into effect on 1 Jun 1819, also had to register themselves and their family with the circuit court. No one could hire a free black or mulatto unless the certificate of freedom was registered. The fine for employing such a person was $1.50 per day, one third going to the person who supplied the court with the information and two-thirds to the county. Those who could not produce certificates of freedom were to be treated as runaway slaves.

On 17 Jan 1829, the year Beverly BROWN moved his family to Illinois, the law there was amended to require free blacks and mulattoes to make a $1,000 security bond as guarantee they would not become public charges and in 1833 the law was revised to require a certificate of good character. Beverly obeyed this law, but not until 1835. Why he waited six years before appearing before the court to declare his freedom and intent to settle in Illinois is uncertain. Beverly made his first land purchase in Illinois in 1836 and perhaps he felt he needed to register as a free man before buying land and becoming a permanent settler. Complying with the law also protected him and his family from being arrested as runaway slaves.

John BITTLE, a white man, certified on 5 Nov 1835, in Union County, that he knew Beverly BROWN, "a mulatto man" and his family in Northampton Co., N.C., since some time before 1815, and knew them in Tennessee, in Kentucky and in Illinois. During his acquaintance with BROWN and his family, BITTLE stated that "him and his family...was always held and reputed to be a free man and free born...and that the whole family so far as I know and believe are honest, industrious, and civilly behaved." Two other white men, Jeremiah OUTLAND and Thomas FERRILL, also signed affidavits that they had known the BROWN family, consisting of Beverly, his sons, Turner, Addison and Robert, and two daughters, Minerva and Louisa, "all mulattos or people of colour" for 18 years in Tennessee, Kentucky and in Illinois and "that they have always been reputed free born persons so far as our knowledge or information extends and they they are honest, orderly and well behaved." Winstead DAVIE, clerk of the court, certified that Beverly BROWN was free and described him as "a bright mulatto, about five feet eleven inches high and about 56 years of age, and that he has given bond and security according to law."

There are several BITTLEs listed on the early census records of Northampton County. John BITTLE was born 3 Apr 1806, in North Carolina, probably Northampton County, and married on 25 May 1826, in Calloway Co., Ky., Hannah KITTS. They came to Union County about 1829. Hannah was born 13 Nov 1807, and died 3 Jul 1861. John died 14 May 1867. He and Hannah are buried in Bittle Cemetery in Union County. Their children were: George W., Joshua, Esther, William F., John F., Lewis M., Dudley, Thomas J., Margaret E. (married Jacob R. RHOADES), Nicholas J., and Laura M.C.

On the 1790 census of Northampton Co., N.C., is listed a Jeremiah OUTLAND. There are also OUTLANDs on the 1800 federal census of Northampton Co., N.C. Many of the OUTLANDs in North Carolina were Quakers. Jeremiah OUTLAND died in Union County on 10 Apr 1842, leaving a widow, Miseniah, who according to family legend was a Cherokee Indian.

Thomas FERRILL was born 12 Jun 1795, in Martin Co., N.C., and moved to Stewart Co., Tenn., about 1804. He served in the War of 1812 in the Tennessee militia. He married on 28 Sep 1819, in Stewart Co., Tenn., Elizabeth ANDERSON and moved to Union County in December of that year. Elizabeth was born 28 Sep 1803, died 8 Feb 1893, and was buried in Toledo Cemetery in Union County. Thomas FERRILL died in Union County on 6 Aug 1849. His children were: Henry, Zilpha (married Wiley B.H. JONES), Charlotte (married William L. WILKINSON), John, Harriet (married Nuborn K. BROCK), Franklin, Ellen (married Winstead SUMNER), Emma (married Robert W. FERRILL) and George W.

Beverly BROWN patented 40 acres in the northwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 8, township 11 south, range 2 west, for which he paid $50 on 13 Jun 1836. He also bought another 40 acres in the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 8, for $50 on 30 Dec 1837. The second 40-acre tract, Beverly sold to his son, Addison BROWN, on 1 Sep 1838, for $60 (Book F pages 108-109). In 1846, this 80 acres was owned by Napoleon Bonaparte COLLINS.

Beverly BROWN died 1 Apr 1839, in Union Co., Ill. James HERRALD of Jackson Co., Ill., and John DOUGHERTY of Jonesboro, were appointed administrators of his estate. HERRALD is listed on the 1830 census of Jackson Co., Ill. (p 84, line 7) as the owner of a female slave age 55-100. Beverly's personal estate was small and was appraised at $91.25. When it was settled, the estate was in debt and there was nothing to distribute to Beverly's children and grandchildren.

Beverly was literate and included in his estate were a lot of books worth $5, a geography book, a Bible, a hymnal, History of Washington and other books, titles not given. As with land ownership and financial success, education has traditionally been viewed in this country as a means of improving one's social and economic status. In 1808 the Kentucky Abolitionist Society stated its objective was to "look after the interests of free Negroes and mulattos and to inculcate morality, industry and economy among means of education." Education was an unobtainable luxury to most African Americans during the nineteenth century, however, and in most places in the South it was illegal to teach them to read or write. Despite the restrictions, Beverly somehow managed to learn.

The children of Beverly BROWN:

1. Turner BROWN was born about 1805 in Northampton Co., N.C., and married on 28 Aug 1835, in Perry Co., Mo., Elizabeth AUSBURN, a white woman, who was born about 1817 in Kentucky. In 1835, Turner was named as a son of Beverly BROWN in Beverly's freedom papers, but the court did not issue such papers for Turner, as it did for all the other children of Beverly. Turner was not a resident of Union Co., Ill., in 1835, and is thought to have been in Missouri or Jackson Co., Ill. He married in Perry Co., Mo., where the ABERNATHIE family were prominent settlers. There was a connection with the ABERNATHIEs in Perry County and the Adaline ABERNATHY who Turner's father married in 1823.

Elizabeth's family was from Union Co., Ill., and it is possible that she and Turner crossed the Mississippi River to Perry Co., Mo., specifically for the purpose of getting married, as miscegenation was illegal in Illinois. An 1829 Illinois law made provisions for severe penalties for any civil authority who granted a license or performed a marriage ceremony between an African American and a white person. In October 1833, less than two years before Turner and Elizabeth married, the circuit court in Union County indicted Sally IVY and Conrad SHEAROD for their alleged interracial marriage. It was perhaps to avoid a similar legal battle that Turner and Elizabeth crossed the river to Missouri to marry.

The law against interracial marriages was enforced in Union County as late as 1869, when on 13 December the People of the State of Illinois indicted James HEARTS and Sarah CRAWFORD alias Martha LEWIS for an unlawful marriage between a white man and a black woman (Circuit Court Book I and J page 8). Sarah CRAWFORD married James A. HARTZ on 17 May 1869, in Union Co., Ill. Sarah was probably a sister of Daniel CRAWFORD, who married on 3 May 1866, in Union Co., Ill., Amy DUNKIN. The marriage license records that both were Negroes. The grand jury indicted Sarah as a black woman, a colored woman and a mulatto woman. She was arrested on 3 Nov 1869. Her bail was set at $500 and made by John E. LUFKIN on the same day of her arrest. Witnesses for the People were William B. GRAMMER, J.P. BOHANNON and Anna CRAWFORD. No record of an arrest of HEARTS was found. The two were to appear in court in June 1870, but Sheriff William C. RICH could not find them in Union County on 11 Jun 1870.

The Carbondale New Era of 25 May 1869, copied a story from the Cairo Times by Miss C.G. NATION dated Anna May 5, 1869. "A white Democrat, James HARDY, on Monday married a Negro wench. Squire GRAMMER married them at Dan CRAWFORD's house. HARDY is a widower with two children living with respectable people. He has been here about a year, and has earned a reputation for industry and honesty. The name of the Negro girl we have not learned. She has lived there two or three years, working for families and is passibly good looking. Her parents live near Villa Ridge, and she has been blessed with an illegitimate child, whiter than herself, about two year ago. HARDY is Irish. After the facts of this marriage had become established, some enraged Irishmen turned on him and gave him a severe beatring."

Almost all of the free African American settlers in Union County were classified as "mulattos" and if knowledge of their ancestry had not been known, would probably have been assumed to be white. Despite physical appearances, "one drop" of African blood was enough to legally classify one as a mulatto in many Southern states. Only by concealing one's heritage, changing one's name and keeping one's identify hidden could those classified as free blacks make the illegal migration to the white race and receive all the social and political benefits which accompanied that classification.

Turner A. BROWN is on the 1840 census in Jackson Co., Ill. (sheet 17). Turner's sister, Louisa BROWN, is listed on the census next to him and his family. He and Elizabeth are on the 1850 census of Stoddard Co., Mo., Pike Township (household 571/581, page 294). Turner's real estate was valued at $300. He and his children are listed as mulattos on the census and Elizabeth is listed as white. Turner and his family were the only blacks or mulattos living in Stoddard County in 1850. Elizabeth died between 1850 and 1855, probably in Stoddard Co., Mo.

The early land records of Jackson County were destroyed in a fire, but Turner owned land there. According to the probate file of Jacob Millikin in Union County, Turner sold Jacob 40 acres in the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 31 and 40 acres in the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 32, both in township 10 south, range 2 west. The land was valued at $850 in 1864 when Jacob MILLIKIN died.

Between 1850 and 1854, Turner moved to Union Co., Ill., and settled at Union Point, three miles east of Preston on the Mississippi River. Turner is on the 1854 tax list. His personal property was valued at $363 and he paid $3.60 in taxes. In 1856 he paid $8.01 in taxes for personal property valued at $453. He was living in township 12 south, range 3 west. He is also on that township's tax list in 1857 and paid $6.29 in taxes on personal property valued at $588, in 1858 when he paid $7.90 taxes on personal property worth $739, in 1859, when he paid 7.84 in taxes on $733 in personal property, and in 1861, when he paid $5.89 in taxes on personal property worth $693. In 1862 he was taxed $5.64 in township 11 south, range 3 west, for personal property worth $664. In 1863, he was back in township 12 south, range 3 west and paid $9.14 personal property tax on property valued at $782. He paid $8.59 personal property tax in 1864 on $747, but by 1865, his taxes had increased to $31.73, of which $20.34 was a school tax. Turner's personal property was worth $1,017.

Wiley M. LETT and Mrs. Louisa VAUGHN were married at the house of Turner BROWN in Union County on 25 Oct 1855. Perhaps Louisa is the widow of the John W. VAUGHN, who died at the home of Robert BROWN, Turner's brother, in 1852.

The first Union County census which has reference to Turner is the 1855 state census. In his household were five males and four females. His livestock was valued at $250.

Turner is the head of a household on the 1860 census of Union Co., Ill. (household 212). On the 1860 agriculture census of township 11 south, range 3 west, Union County, Turner's farm land, 120 acres of improved land and 300 acres of unimproved land, was valued at $5,000. Turner's farm implements were worth $200. His livestock, which included 100 swine, 24 cattle, 15 sheep, 4 oxen, 6 milk cows, 2 mules and 2 horses, was worth $815. He had 700 bushels of wheat, 1,600 bushels of Indian corn, 70 pounds of wool, 4 bushels of beans, 10 bushels of Irish potatoes, and 2 bushels of sweet potatoes. Animals slaughtered were worth $100. Turner was one of the most prosperous farmers in Union County. John DRUMMONDS, a white farm laborer, born about 1840 in Missouri, lived with Turner and his family in 1860.

Turner is on the 1865 state census of Union Precinct, Union Co., Ill. In his household were five free males of color and three free females of color. His livestock was worth $1,000 and he had 10 pounds of wool on hand. He is listed on the tax records of Union County for 1869 as the owner of personal property valued at $980 and paid $17.61 in taxes.

Turner died on 20 Nov 1869, in Union Co., Ill. Although the sale of his personal property accumulated $2,735.96, much more than other estate sales of the period, his estate was insolvent and his two surviving children received nothing. Turner's estate was heavily in debt due to his having made loans which were never repaid. On 20 Oct 1859, he, by his attorney, John DOUGHERTY of Jonesboro, sued several white men who had signed notes amounting to $705.44, but had not repaid them. One of the men was James G. SUBLETTE, a son of Lineus Bolen SUBLETTE, who owned slaves in Missouri. Although the court ordered the men to repay BROWN, there is no record that this was done.

Priscilla ALDRIDGE, a white woman, filed a claim against the estate of Turner BROWN for $225 for four years back pay as a washer woman. She was a white woman who lived with Turner and his family from 1865 until his death in 1869. Neighbors signed affidavits that she was there "as a member of the family." Priscilla was probably Turner's sister-in-law. James ALDRIDGE married on 11 Jan 1846, in Union Co., Ill., Priscilla OSBORN (Marriage Book 1 page 184). ALDRIDGE was previously married on 6 Mar 1836, in Union Co., Ill., Sarah HEMRICK, the daughter of Adam HEMRICK. Priscilla was born about 1815 in Tennessee and James was born about 1790 in North Carolina (1850 census, page 220, household 1052). James died in 1857 in Union County. His children, nieces and nephews of Turner BROWN, were: William, born about 1829 in Illinois; Mark, born about 1830 in Illinois; Jane, born about 1834 in Missouri; Lucinda, born about 1848 in Illinois; and James, born about 1849 in Illinois (married 3 Apr 1881, in Union Co., Ill., Mrs. Ellen E. (CRAIG) SALYERS, born in Dent Co., Mo., daughter of Nicholas and Nancy (THOMAS) CRAIG. Priscilla is thought to have remarried Uriah ALDRIDGE. Their daughter was Annie ALDRIDGE, who was born about 1861 in Union County (married 17 Jun 1879, in Union Co., Ill., Alexander HOLLAND, who was born about 1856 in Arkansas, son of Jonathon and Louisa (HATFIELD) HOLLAND.

Samuel C. OSBORN is thought to be a brother of Priscilla OSBORN ALDRIDGE and Elizabeth OSBURN BROWN. Samuel was born about 1810 and married on 15 Jan 1832, in Union Co., Ill., Rhoda HEMRICK, who was born about 1808 in North Carolina, the daughter of John HEMRICK. Samuel died between 1846 and 1850. John HEMRICK was born about 1787 in North Carolina and died 4 Sep 1866, in Union Co., Ill. His will of 3 Mar 1861, gave his daughter, Rodah OSBORN, a wheel, cards and weaving loom. His grandson, Samuel OSBURN, received a a bed, rifle and clock. His second cousin, Mark ALDRIDGE, a son of James ALDRIDGE, was given his 39-acre farm in the southwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 4, township 11 south, range 2 west, when he paid Willis Benton OSBORN (the son of John C. OSBORN), $100 when Willis became 21.

The children of Samuel OSBORN, and probably the nieces and nephews of Turner BROWN, were: John C., who was born about 1833, died 20 Mar 1863, and married on 8 Apr 1860, Mary C. BEVEL (Mary C. remarried Hezekiah INMAN on 20 Dec 1863); William, who was born about 1836; Martha, who was born about 1838; Sarah, who was born about 1839 and married on 3 Jan 1861, Christopher Colombus VANCIL; Elizabeth, who was born about 1842 and married on 22 Dec 1864, Lewis JONES; Henry, who was born about 1844; and Samuel, who was born about 1846 and married on 2 Jun 1876, Elizabeth BEAVER.

The probate file of Turner BROWN contains the following letters to him from Robert J. DOHERTY, who married on 18 Dec 1865, in Union Co., Ill., Sarah E. GREGORY. They had moved to Kansas and apparently asked Turner to settle their financial affairs in Illinois.

Garrett Anderson Co

Kansas Feby 18th 1869


Dear Sir I recieved yours of the 10th Inst to day and was glad to hear from you but Sorry to see that men are so false-- Mr. BROWN I did not owe Sam SPRING 7500. I owed him about 65.00. Neither was I to give TREXLER 12 1/2 cts pr Bushel to haul and Sack my corn. 10 cts was what he was to have. Sam knows that he told my wife that he would pay me 40 cts pr Bus for the corn and pay for the hauling. As to BURK I owe him nothing and he knowes it If he goes into law Send me my book and I will send you my deposition he shall pay me if it costs me a Lawyers fee. Jim is a perfect _______. He knows that I owe him nothing. I am sorry that the Horse cant be sold. I wish you would keep the Horse in your possession until you could sell him--- What have you done with the tobacco you didint Say--- I want you to send me what money you have on hand. I need it very much--- I will wait for my things till I get more money. I have been looking for letters from you ever since I left, but I have received but this from you. If I can possibly get my affairs so arranged I will be at your house this Spring by the middle of May. I am going to my Fathers and will stop at your house and stay a week--- Mr. BROWN I will do what is right about the note you know I was to have the money in two months from NORRIS--- I wish I could get him to pay me the note--- Cant he be persuaded to do right--- I wish you to wright how you and family are getting along how the health of the family is how does Aunt Lou is getting along and the neighbors--- Tell Dr. Mayu howdy for me and Say to him that if he will pay you ten Dollars for the saddle & Pill Bags he can have them. I dont want you to let him have them until paid for--- You must do the best you can for me. I think I can pay the fees on my things when they come to me So it will not be necessary to let GREGORY have any money. Send to me what money you have--- Register your Letter direct to R.J. DOHERTY, Garrett, Kansas, Anderson County.

Turner sent DOHERTY the money he requested and two months later received another letter from Kansas.

Garrett, Kansas

April 18th 1869


Dear Sir

I recieved your letter of (Registered) the 7th Inst. and was very glad to get the money you sent. I am Sorry Mr. BROWN the steers were not enough to pay the note. I was mistakened in the value of them If you recollect Steph was willing to give up his mare to you until I was paid and you did'nt want her--- I have waited some time for the money. Stephen is the man to lose it But I will loose it rather than you should---It is strange the horse wont work I saw him plow as gently as old Jim and plowed him myself--- I want him sold if you can possibly do so I have no horse to plow nor ride and am in a bad fix unless you can sell for me we have no cow, horse or hog here by the way what became of the hogs did BRANNON get the aow did he attent to the business for me as he promised Tell Dr. McGEE we send him our _____ regards Mr. BROWN I look you fer pay about the Pill Bags and Saddle as to Doc if he wants them all right so the money is sent to me right off--- I Enclose the note and hope you will attend to mailing me the money--- I want you to pay yourself out of my property for your trouble--- Mr. BROWN by all means try to sell the horse for me if you can get $100.00 Dollars for him take it--- I want to raise a little crop here if I can get money to buy a horse--- I just paid out what you sent me right away on my house and still in debt--- I wish I had staid where I was in Ills. I have seen enough of this country. I guess I will come back this fall I have sowed some Spring wheat and am going to plant a small crop of corn--- There are wagons traveling from here to Capital of the State for corn, corn is worth 175 cts pr Bushel flour 6 to 7 cts per lb Bacon 23 cts pr lb it is distressing times on me here Sarah has dropsy and I don't believe she will ever get over it Keep this letter to yourself But I will come back in the fall if God spares my life I often think that if I was back in Ills I would be all right. give my love to all your family Tell Henry that I would like to see him and ask him if the little Rabbits are still fumping in the pot---If we could see each other we would do some gassing. I hope this will find you prospering in this world--- I am in trouble about my wife. She is in Bed and cant walk a step--- If you can get that money from GREGORY I will be glad he ought to pay me--- Alfred GREGORY wrote that he would come here in this month but I don't look for him if you see Alfred tell him to look round and try to help you--- Sell the horse--- I cant come before fall but then am coming if god spairs me---Write me on the receipt of this---

Your Friend Till death


Garrett, Anderson Co., Kansas

To Mr. Turner BROWN

Sarah joins me in sending her love to you all. RJD

Turner did not reply and DOHERTY wrote his third letter two months later.

Garnett, Kansas

June 23rd 1869

Mr. BROWN Dear Sir

I have never received a word from you since I recd the money--- I have been looking anxiously for a letter--- Please send the money by money orders Post office money order Instead of Regestring--- There is no certainty in Registered letters--- I am in trouble for money and hope you will let me know whats the matter--- Have you sold my horses--- if you have not I wish you would make a sale of him if possibly

Give my love to your family and except the same for your self.

Yours truly


About a month before Turner's death, DOHERTY wrote his final letter from Kansas.

Garnett, Kansas

October the 22nd 1869


Dear Sir

I received yours of the 14th inst which is now before me I was glad to hear from you though sorry to hear that you are unwell this finds me in good health though there has been considerable sickness here I have been practising some in this country though not as a matter of choice but my neighbors will have me occasionally in spite of me---I did intend to be if possibole at your House when I wrote you. But circumstances alter cases consequently I did not get there I have made money notwithstanding my bad luck--- I fortunately got hold of a good piece of land and have got me a splendid building for Kansas put up my house cost me some 300 Dollars, pine weatherbourding , walunt shingles have it painted off nicely so I can sell for 400 Dollars cash any day but I want 500 Dollars and I can get it before Spring--- Then I expect to come to Ills and sell Druggs at some point--- I would like the best in the word to see you all and if life lasts I expect to as soon as I can get my business arranged in a shape that I can come--- You said to write if I wanted the amt of money you had of mine mailed--- Please buy a "money order" and send it to me as soon as possible I need money--- verry much as quick as you can send it to me by mail please do so.

Post masters tell me here that to register a letter does no good if it is lost I loose it therefore I had rather you would buy a "money order" and send it in it. I guess I will come right back to Illinois as soon as I get things fixed up. I am dissatisfied here and it is no place for me to live in my condition,

I hope to hear from you soon give my respects to all the family and except for yourself the Same

Yours truly


P.S. If you cant sell the horse take good care of him till I come--- R.J.D.

a. John BROWN was born about 1836 in Illinois and died probably between 1860 and 1869. He is on the 1850 census with his parents in Stoddard Co., Mo. and in 1860 in Union County.

There was a John BROWN hung in Jonesboro in 1854, but he is not thought to be the son of Turner. He could, however, have been a nephew.

b. ? male, BROWN, was born between 1830 and 1840 and is on the 1840 census with his parents in Jackson Co., Ill. He died before 1850.

c. Sophia BROWN was born about 1840 in Illinois. She is on the 1850 census with her parents, but was not living with them in 1860. She died before 1869.

d. George F. BROWN was born about 1842-1845 in Missouri and died between 1860 and 1869.

e. Nancy Jane BROWN was born about 1846-1847 in Missouri and married 14 Jan 1867, in Union Co., Ill., Robert W. ABERNATHIE, a white man, who was born about 1834 in Union Co., Ill. He was probably a son of James and Mary TWEEDY ABERNATHY. James is on the 1835 and 1840 censi in Union County and died there on 22 Dec 1844. He was the son of John ABERNATHIE, who was born about 1762, moved from Lincoln Co., N.C., to Cape Girardeau Co., Mo., with his slaves in 1800 and died in Union Co., Ill., in 1835. Mary was the daughter of Robert and Tempy TWEEDY.

In 1850, Robert was living in Union County with Parrish Green ABERNATHIE (household 795), who was born about 1818 and died 17 Jul 1853 in Union County.

Robert was previously married on 11 May 1861, in Union Co., Ill., to Cipora A. SIDES, but they were divorced after Robert returned from the army to discover she had had a child in his absence in 1865. Robert enlisted as a corporal in Co. D, 4th Illinois Cavalry on 9 Nov 1862. He was described as 5'7", with a fair complexion, blue eyes and light hair. He was mustered out 26 Mar 1866, in New Orleans.

Cipora A. SIDES was born about 1837 and was probably the daughter of Michael SIDES, who was born about 1814 in North Carolina and is on the 1850 census of Union Co., Ill. (household 793). Robert ABERNATHIE was living nearby in household 795.

Robert may also be the same person as Robert W. ABERNATHIE who married on 12 Oct 1849, in Union Co., Ill., Sarah Ann COTNER (Marriage Book 1 page 246).

Robert first appears on Union County tax lists in 1869 in township 12 south, range 3 west. He paid $2.07 in taxes on $115 worth of personal property. He is also on the 1870 tax list in the same township and paid $3.89 taxes on $175 personal property.

Robert and Nancy are on the 1870 census of Union Precinct, Union Co., Ill. (household 124). Robert was a farmer, but owned no land. He was listed as a white man and Nancy and their son, Henry, were recorded as mulattos.

On 12 Oct 1871, Nancy Jane and Robert W. ABERNATHIE and Nancy's brother, Henry L. BROWN, sold to their aunt, Louisa BROWN, for $600 their undivided half interest in the north half of the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 11, township 11 south, range 3 west, 120 acres (Book 28 page 112).

Nancy Jane bought on 12 Feb 1873, from A. and Mary Ann REED, for $300, part of the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 13, township 13 south, range 1 west, 7.5 acres (Book 28 page 381) On 12 May 1873, Nancy and Robert sold this to Peter LENCE for $300 (Book 28 page 382).

The 1870 mortality schedule of Union County states that Robert M. ABERNATHIE, born about 1833 in Illinois, died in May 1870 of bilious fever. The relationship of Robert M. to Robert W. ABERNATHIE is not known, but they were probably cousins. Robert M. ABERNATHIE married on 31 Mar 1864, in Union Co., Ill., Sarah Jane LEMONS, who was born about 1840. She married again on 29 Nov 1874, in Union County, J.L. WHITEHEAD, who was born about 1849. Robert M. and Sarah ABERNATHIE's children were: Adelia Ann ABERNATHIE, Lilly Belle ABERNATHIE born 23 Sep1866, died 3 May 1884, Mary J. ABERNATHIE born 15 Feb 1868, and Libbie ABERNATHIE, born 28 Oct 1869 (Probate Box 4; guardianship box 596a).

In 1873, Robert W. ABERNATHIE was a tax payer in township 13 south, range 1 west. He was taxed $1.68 for personal property valued at $42. In 1874, he was taxed $3.73 for personal property valued at $91. The 1874 tax list is the last record of Robert W. ABERNATHIE in Union County. He and Nancy are not on the 1880 census there and probably moved from the county or died before that census was taken.

In Pulaski Co., Ill., R.W. ABANATHIE married Mrs. Josephine COMPERRY on 13 Nov 1888. It is not certain if this is the same person as Robert W. ABERNATHIE, who married Nancy Jane BROWN. There are no ABERNATHIEs on the 1880 census of Pulaski County.

(1) Henry J. ABERNATHIE was born about 1869 in Missouri.

f. Henry L. BROWN was born in 1849 in Missouri and married 17 Nov 1872, in Union Co., Ill., Mrs. Mary Ann ABBOT SULLIVAN. Mary Ann was a white woman and Henry was able to legally marry her only after "proving less than 1/8 Negro blood." They are not on the 1880 census of Union Co., Ill.

(1) Turner BROWN was born about 1875 in Union Co., Ill., and married on 23 Oct 1899, in Union Co., Ill., Gertrude B. "Gertie" STEWART, who was born about 1875 in Union Co., Ill., the daughter of John T. and Charity WORLD STEWART. Both Turner and Gertie are listed as white on their marriage license and were residents of Cobden. Turner, obviously named in honor of his grandfather, listed his occupation as laborer.

It is not known if there is a connection between Gertie's father, John T. STEWART, and John STEWART, the father of Letha STEWART ALLEN. John T. STEWART was born about 1830 in Tennessee and was a farmer.

He is on the 1870 (household 88) and 1880 (household 255) censuses of Ridge Precinct, Union Co., Ill. He and his family were listed as white. His wife, Charity WORLD, was born about 1837 in Illinois. They were married on 10 Jun 1852, in Johnson Co., Ill. Their children, all born in Illinois, were: William Randolph (born in 1858), Mary H. (born in 1861), Martha Ellen (born in 1861, married 30 Oct 1877, in Union Co., Ill., James NELSON, who was born in 1852), Letty C. (born in 1863), and Gerty B. (born about 1875). Also on the 1870 census with the family was Oliver I. WORL, who was born about 1853. Oliver may be a brother of Charity.

Charity WORLD STEWART was the daughter of David W. WORRELL (born about 1814 in Tennessee, the son of Lewis WORRELL) and Emily ABERNATHIE (born about 1820 in North Carolina, the daughter of David and Nancy ABERNATHIE). David and Emily were married in Union Co., Ill., on 22 May 1836. They are on the 1850 census of Johnson Co., Ill. (household 76). In 1850, in addition to their daughter, Charity, they had Nancy WORRELL born about 1847 in Illinois. Also living with them in 1850 was Morgan ABERNATHA born about 1845 in Illinois, perhaps a brother of Emily.

A brother of David W. WORRELL was probably Henry WORRELL, who married on 1 Mar 1838, in Johnson Co., Ill., Charity ABINATHY born about 1823 in North Carolina. They had William WORREL born about 1844 in Illinois. Henry is believed to have died before 11 Oct 1846, the date Charity WORRELL married in Johnson Co., Ill., Irvin WISE born about 1818 in Illinois.

Another brother of David W. WORRELL may have been Branham WORRELL, who was born about 1810 in North Carolina. He married on 27 Apr 1843, in Johnson Co., Ill., Elizabeth CARTER. He married again on 10 Oct 1845, in Johnson Co., Ill., Mary "Polly" WILHELM, who was born about 1824 in North Carolina. Branham was a farmer on the 1850 census of Johnson Co., Ill. (household 71). Also in his household were: Melissa C. born about 1834 in Illinois, Nancy S. born about 1836 in Illinois (married 24 Mar 1855, in Johnson Co., Ill., George F. LEFLER), Melvina born about 1844 in Illinois, William J. born about 1846 in Illinois and Henry N. born about 1848 in Illinois.

In the 1910 soundex of Illinois, one Turner BROWN is listed in Saline County (household 126, ED 109). He was recorded as a white farmer, born about 1880 in Illinois. His parents were also born in Illinois. He married his second wife in 1908. Rosetta was born about 1875 in Illinois. This was her third marriage and she was the mother of six children, all deceased. It is not certain that this Turner is the same person as the son of Henry L. BROWN.


2. Addison BROWN was born about 1807 in Northampton Co., N.C. He was declared free in 1835 in Union County and was described as "a bright mulatto about six feet high and about 28 years old."

Addison patented 80 acres, the north half of the southeast quarter of section 1, township 11 south, range 3 west, for $100 on 26 Oct 1836.

Addison BROWN is on the 1839 tax list of Union Co., Ill., as Atterson BROWN. He was taxed for one horse worth $20, five cattle worth $47, and other personal property worth $100. His name appears as Addison BROWN on the 1847 tax list of Union County. He was charged a 35cents tax for horses worth $45.

Addison purchased 40 acres from his father, Beverly BROWN, for $60 on 1 Sep 1838. This was in the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 8, township 11 south, range 2 west (Book F pages 108-109).

Addison died 17 Apr 1849, in Union Co., Ill., of fever, after an illness of eight weeks. He was a farmer. The 1850 mortality schedule states that he was married, however, if this is true, his widow must have died before the estate was settled. No marriage record has been located in Illinois for Addison BROWN. His brother, Robert BROWN, was appointed administrator of Addison's estate. While Addison was ill, his neighbor, Henry LEYERLE, nursed him, for which he charged the estate $15. There was also a debt due John BALTZELL Jr. for $2 for balance on schooling from December 1848 to January 1849. Perhaps this was for the education of his nieces, the children of his sister, Manerva BROWN. Addison's land included 80 acres he had patented from the government in the north half of the southeast quarter of section 1, township 11 south, range 3 west. Addison had no children. When his estate was settled, his brothers, Robert and Turner, received $130.30 each, as did their sister, Louisa BROWN. The three children of his sister, Manerva, divided her part and each received $34.29.

On the 1850 census of Union County, Jane BROWN, a mulatto, is living in the household of Henry LEYERLE. She was born about 1833 in Illinois, but her relationship to Addison BROWN, if any, is not known. She was probably one of the daughters of Manerva BROWN, Addison's sister. Henry LEYERLE was a neighbor of the BROWNs and was born 3 Jan 1786, in North Carolina and died 23 Nov 1857, in Union Co., Ill., the son of Zachariah and Margaret Catherine MEISENHEIMER LEYERLE. Henry married 12 Nov 1806, in Rowan Co., N.C., Mary FITE. His children were Belviritta "Ritty" SMITH, Sena MYERS, Caleb LEYERLE, Mastin LEYERLE, Mary STEEL, Henry LEYERLE Jr., Eliza CAUBLE, Delilah CAUBLE and Frary MAY.

3. Manerva BROWN was born about 1809 in Northampton Co., N.C. Manerva was declared free in 1835 in Union Co., Ill., and was described as "a mulatto five feet four inches high and aged 26 years." She died before 1850 and her children can not be found on any Illinois census, unless one was Jane BROWN living with Henry LEYERLE in 1850. Turner BROWN, their uncle, reported to the court, as administrator of the estate of Robert BROWN, that the whereabouts of Manerva's three children were not known, but they were not living in Union County in 1860.

a. Louisa (or Eliza) BROWN was born between 1835 and 1849.

b. Harriet BROWN was born between 1835 and 1849.

c. Melton BROWN was born between 1835 and 1849.


4. Robert BROWN was born about 1811 in Northampton Co., N.C. Robert was declared a free man in Union County in 1835 and was described as "a mulatto about six feet one inch high, aged about 24 years."

In 1846, Robert paid $2.47 in taxes in Union County for horses worth $25, cattle worth $20, a cart worth $15, and other personal property worth $200. In 1847 Robert was taxed $2.33 for horses worth $60, cattle worth $25, stock worth $200, and other personal property worth $10. Robert is on the 1850 census of Union County and was a farmer whose real estate was worth $200. The census reports that he was illiterate. Robert was single, but his sister, Louisa, lived with him (household 938, page 211).

Robert BROWN made the following land transactions in Union County:

He bought from Drake H. and Catherine HUNSAKER RENDLEMAN, on 1 Mar 1850, for $200, the northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 24, township 12 south, range 2 west, 34 acres (Book J page 464). He also bought from the RENDLEMANs on 29 Jul 1850, for $5 the west side of the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 24, township 12 south, range 2 west, 1 acre (Book J page 540). Robert mortgaged this land to Isaac HARTLINE for $200 on 15 Feb 1853, which mortgaged was satisfied by 1 Sep 1854 (Book 11 page 687). Robert sold this land, 35 acres, and the southeast quarter of the west half of the southeast quarter of section 13, township 12 south, range 2 west, 5 acres, to Willis WILLARD for $600 on 29 Dec 1854 (Book 13 page 610).

Robert bought from George and Ritty LEYERLE SMITH on 14 Sep 1850, for $425, lot 25 in McElhaney's 2nd Addition to Jonesboro (Book K page 12). Robert sold this on 23 Jan 1852, to James McLANE for $425 (Book 11 page 340).

On 14 Sep 1850, Robert sold the northwest of the northeast quarter of section 6, township 12 south, range 2 west, which included a mill, to Henry LEYERLY for $200 on 14 Sep 1850 (Book 11 page 8). Clear Creek runs through this land and was probably what powered the mill.

Green W. and Manerva Ann DOUGLASS HALL mortgaged to Robert BROWN for $147.50 on 22 Oct 1851, lot 42 in McElhaney's 2nd Addition to Jonesboro and 40 acres in the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 26, township 12 south, range 2 west. Robert reported that the mortgage had been paid by the HALLs on 28 Jul 1854 (Book K page 280).

He bought from Ewing C. and Nancy McKINNEY on 23 Jul 1853, for $75, the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 12, township 11 south, range 3 west, 40 acres (Book 13 page 42). Robert sold this to John CAUBLE for $100 on 12 Mar 1856 (Book 14 page 642).

Robert bought from Willis and Frances R. WEBB WILLARD on 9 Dec 1854, for $1,1877.83, the southeast quarter of section 36, township 11 south, range 3 west and the northwest quarter of section 6, township 12 south, range 3 west, 191 acres (Book 13 page 611). The court ordered the land in section 36 to be sold, after the death of Robert BROWN, to pay his debts. Henry W. WILLARD purchased the land on 22 Aug 1863, for $300 (Book 19 page 426),

He bought from William J. and Huldah M. ABERNATHIE JAMES on 16 May 1855, for $800, the north half of the northeast quarter and the northwest part of the southwest quarter of the northeast quarter and the northwest quarter of the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 6, township 12 south, range 3 west, 127 acres (Book 14 page 249). Two days later, on 18 May 1855, Robert mortgaged this to the school commissioners of township 12 south, range 3 west for $300 at 10% interest, payable in two years. Turner BROWN, Robert's administrator, made the last payment on 6 Apr 1861 (Book 14 page 221). When Robert died, the court ordered this 127 acres sold, as well as 112 acres in section 6, which he purchased from Willis and Frances WEBB WILLARD in 1854. On 22 Jun 1861, Willis WILLARD purchased the 149 acres for $862.15 (Book 18 page 311).

On 3 Nov 1852, Robert appeared in Union County Commissioners Court and declared that John Wesley VAUGHN was at his house and unable to make a living on account of being sick with dropsy. VAUGHN was declared a pauper and died at Robert's house in November or December 1852. Robert was allowed $12 for nursing him and James KERR was allowed $3 for burial expenses.

Robert patented from the federal government 40 acres, the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 1, township 11 south, range 3 west, for which he only paid $5 (13cents an acre) on 6 Dec 1854.

Robert is on the 1855 state census of Union County. He was living alone and his livestock was valued at $35.

Robert BROWN died 31 Jul 1858, in Union Co., Ill. He had no wife or children. His brother, Turner BROWN, was appointed administrator of his estate. His personal property was appraised at $906. His estate was in debt $1,275.46 before his land was sold to Willis WILLARD and Henry W. WILLARD for $1,462.15. His personal property was also sold for $1,156.92. Robert's estate, despite the debt, was one of the largest in Union County during the mid nineteenth century.


5. Louisa BROWN was born about 1814 in Northampton Co., N.C. On 6 Nov 1835, she was certified to be a free woman in Union Co., Ill. She was described as a "mulatto about five feet four inches high and aged 21 years."

Louisa is on the 1839 tax list of Union County as Luisa BROWN. She was taxed for two cows worth $10 and other personal property worth $15.

By 1840, Louisa had moved north to Jackson Co., Ill., and is on the census there (sheet 17), living next to her brother, Turner A. BROWN. On the 1850 census she was living with her brother, Robert BROWN in Union County. The census taker recorded that she was illiterate. She was living in Union County in 1860 when Sheriff Lorenzo P. WILCOX read a summons for her to appear in court to give any objection to the sale of her brother, Robert's land, to pay his debts.

Louisa was living with her brother, Turner BROWN, on the 1860 census of Union Co., Ill. She is listed as Lou BROWN on the 1869 tax list of township 12 south, range 3 west and paid $3.15 in taxes on $176 personal property. On the 1870 census she was the head of the household in Union Precinct, Union County (household 125). She and her son moved to Ridge Precinct by 1880 and are on the census there (household 379/383).

Louisa BROWN, purchased from her niece and nephew, Nancy ABERNATHIE and Henry BROWN, for $600 their undivided half interest in the north half of the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 11, township 11 south, range 3 west, 120 acres (Book 28 page 112).

Louisa mortgaged for $1,500 to Lindorf HICKUM on 1 Nov 1875, the east half of the southeast quarter of section 1, township 11 south, range 3 west, 80 acres (Book 33 page 216).

Louisa was on the personal property tax list for township 11 south, range 3 west in 1875. She owned personal property worth $20 and paid 69cents in taxes.

On 7 Nov 1878, Louisa BROWN of Ridge Precinct, Union County sold to Lindolph HICKUM of Ridge Precinct, the east half of the southeast quarter of section 1, township 11 south, range 3 west, 80 acres, for $750 (Book 52 page 310). The same day, Lindolph HICKUM and his wife, Martha Jane nee SMITH, mortgaged the land to Louiza BROWN for $165.

Louisa mortgaged the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 1, township 11 south, range 3 west, 40 acres, for $287.50 on 17 Mar 1881, to Charles BRIDGEMAN (Book 7 page 134).

a. Calvin BROWN was born in May 1852 in Union Co., Ill., and married on 15 Dec 1889, in Union Co., Ill., Darthula HOUCHENS, who was born February 1856 in Jackson Co., Ill., daughter of Wilson and Elizabeth HANKLEY HOUCHENS (Marriage Book 7 page 282). Darthula was a white woman and Calvin a mulatto, according to their marriage license. The 1860 census records Calvin as white.

Calvin and Darthula got a marriage license in Union County in March 1882, but the license was not returned to the county clerk's office. They had at least one child between 1882 and their official marriage in 1889. It is not known why they did not marry in 1882.

Darthula was on the 1860 census of Jackson Co., Ill., (household 1865)with her parents, Wilson HOUCHENS, who was born about 1825 in Kentucky and Elizabeth HANKLEY HOUCHENS, who was born about 1835 in Tennessee. Brothers and sisters of Darthula were Harrison, born about 1850, George born about 1854, Mary born about 1857 and Alexander born in 1860. The family is on 1865 state census of Jackson County, but is not on the 1870 or 1880 census of Jackson County. Wilson E. HOUCHENS married in Union Co., Ill., on 25 Jul 1871, Mrs. Margaret HUNTER BATSON. Margaret was the widow of John C. BATSON, who was a soldier in Co. E, 31st Illinois Infantry and died during the Civil War in Cairo, Ill., on 2 Feb 1862. On 27 Jul 1871, two days after Wilson and Margaret married, John HANKLEY and Sarah SWAFFORD and Zeb MALONE and Catharine HANKLEY were married in Union Co., Ill. Zeb MALONE appears on the personal property tax lists of township 11 south, range 1 west in Union County beginning in 1878. Zeb MALONE divorced his wife Alice in Union County on 19 Mar 1912.

In 1875, E.W. (Wilson E.?) HOUCHINS appears on the tax list for township 11 south, range 4 west. He owned $66 in personal property and paid $1.93 in taxes.

Darthula was probably named in honor of her aunt Darthula LEDGERWOOD JOHNSON HANKLEY, the daughter of James and Bethaniah PEARCE LEDGERWOOD, who was born 5 Mar 1818, in Knox Co., Tenn., died 30 Oct 1896, and was buried in Water Valley Cemetery, Union Co., Ill. She married on 12 Sep 1837, in Knox Co., Tenn., Frederick JOHNSON, who died 17 May 1851, in Union Co., Ill., age 43 years. She married Darthula HOUCHENS BROWN's uncle, Abram HANKLEY on 1 Dec 1853, in Union Co., Ill.

On 12 Apr 1889, before his marriage, Calvin sold to Nathaniel H. PISTHE of Alto Pass Precinct, for $900, the northwest quarter of the southeast quarter of section 1, township 11 south, range 3 west, 40 acres (Book 42 page 156).

On 15 Aug 1891, William R. PIRTLE and wife, Sarah C. nee ROBINSON, mortgaged to Calvin BROWN for $300, part of the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 1, township 11 south, range 3 west, 38 acres (Book 10 page 445).

Calvin was a farmer in 1880 and told the census taker that both his parents were born in North Carolina, however, when he applied for a marriage license he declared he did not know who his father was. Calvin and Darthula are on the 1900 census of Cobden Precinct, Union Co., Ill. (household 131/133). She was then the mother of six children, although only four were living. Calvin was a day laborer and rented their home. The family is not on the 1910 census of Union County and it is not known to where they moved. His family could not be identified on the 1910 soundex of Illinois.

(1) Viola BROWN was born in March 1882 in Union Co., Ill.

(2) ? BROWN was born about 1885 and died before 1900

(3) Arabelle BROWN was born in September 1889 in Union Co., Ill.

(4) John Calvin BROWN was born 18 Feb 1893, near Cobden, Union Co., Ill. His birth certificate records his color as Negro (Birth Register 2 page 267). He is not on the 1900 census with his parents and must have died young.

(5) C. Myrtle BROWN was born 15 Aug 1895, near Cobden, Union Co., Ill.

(6) Harvey BROWN was born in November 1898 in Union Co., Ill.